Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular ecology, July 2011, Vol.20(13), pp.2851-63
    Description: Socially monogamous female birds routinely mate with males outside the pair bond. Three alternative hypotheses consider genetic benefits as the major driver behind the female strategy. The inbreeding avoidance hypothesis predicts that females paired with closely related males should seek copulations with distantly related extra-pair partners to avoid fitness loss from inbreeding depression; the outbreeding avoidance hypothesis predicts the opposite; the kin-selection hypothesis suggests that regardless of social mate relatedness, females should give related males extra-pair fertilization opportunities to gain inclusive fitness if the costs from inbreeding are minor. We test these hypotheses with a facultative cooperative breeder, the ground tit (Parus humilis). Social pairs of ground tits formed randomly with respect to genetic relatedness. In both bi-parental and cooperative groups, a female's engaging in extra-pair mating was independent of relatedness to her social mate; however, females preferred extra-pair sires to which they were more related than to their social mates. Moreover, females had higher relatedness with either their extra-group extra-pair sires in both bi-parental and cooperative groups, or within-group helper sires in cooperative groups, than expected by chance. When more than one potential extra-pair partner was available around a female's nest, she tended to select a relative. There was no indication of fitness reduction from extra-pair mating, which occurred at an intermediate level of inbreeding. These data support the kin-selection hypothesis, although there might be alternative nongenetic reasons associated with the extra-pair mating preference. Our finding offers a new explanation for why female birds pursue extra-pair mating. It also may broaden our understanding of the role of kin-selection in the evolution of cooperative society.
    Keywords: Passeriformes -- Physiology ; Sexual Behavior, Animal -- Physiology
    ISSN: 09621083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, 01 July 2013, Vol.69(26), pp.5348-5354
    Description: The mechanisms of nitrogen- and phosphorus-centered nucleophile promoted thiol–vinylsulfone Michael addition reactions have been studied by theoretical calculations. It is found that the trimethylamine-promoted thiol–vinylsulfone Michael addition proceeds by the base-catalyzed mechanism, in which the attack of the methanethiolate–trimethylammonium ion pair at divinylsulfone is the rate-limiting step. Comparison of different types of nitrogen-centered nucleophiles suggests that the aliphatic amine-promoted reactions undergo the base-catalyzed mechanism whereas the -aromatic compound-promoted reactions undergo the nucleophile-initiated mechanism. The trimethylphosphine-promoted thiol–vinylsulfone Michael addition is found to proceed via the nucleophile-initiated mechanism, in which the attack of trimethylphosphine at divinylsulfone is the rate-limiting step. An amine is superior to an organophosphine for the base-catalyzed mechanism because of its stronger basicity. On the other hand, an organophosphine tends to undergo the nucleophile-initiated mechanism more easily than an amine because phosphorus can stabilize the charged intermediates.
    Keywords: Thiol–Vinylsulfone Michael Addition ; Amine ; Organophosphine ; Base-Catalyzed Mechanism ; Nucleophile-Initiated Mechanism ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 1464-5416
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 20 October 2015, Vol.66(16), pp.C54-C54
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.06.1231 Byline: Chen Wang, Rui Si, Mingming Zhang, Rongqing Zhang, Haichang Wang Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 February 2012, Vol.38(5), pp.815-832
    Description: This research presents a comprehensive conceptual model of the dynamics of goal revision over multiple periods. First, based on an integrative literature review, we derive four principles that govern how individuals update their goals over time (monotonicity, diminishing sensitivity, aspiration maximization, and performance satisficing). We then integrate these principles logically as well as mathematically into a goal-discrepancy response function. Next, we advance existing cybernetic models of self-regulation by synthesizing the four principles and the response function into a Test-Operate-Test-Adjust-Loop (TOTAL) model, which captures the dynamics of goal revision in self-regulation. We report four laboratory experiments that demonstrate initial support for the postulates of our model and conclude with a discussion of limitations and future directions.
    Keywords: Goal Setting ; Self Control ; Consumer Behavior ; Models ; Studies ; Market Research ; Experiment/Theoretical Treatment;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 22 November 2013, Vol.342(6161), pp.991-5
    Description: The iron-dependent epoxidase HppE converts (S)-2-hydroxypropyl-1-phosphonate (S-HPP) to the antibiotic fosfomycin [(1R,2S)-epoxypropylphosphonate] in an unusual 1,3-dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol to an epoxide. HppE has been classified as an oxidase, with proposed mechanisms differing primarily in the identity of the O2-derived iron complex that abstracts hydrogen (H•) from C1 of S-HPP to initiate epoxide ring closure. We show here that the preferred cosubstrate is actually H2O2 and that HppE therefore almost certainly uses an iron(IV)-oxo complex as the H• abstractor. Reaction with H2O2 is accelerated by bound substrate and produces fosfomycin catalytically with a stoichiometry of unity. The ability of catalase to suppress the HppE activity previously attributed to its direct utilization of O2 implies that reduction of O2 and utilization of the resultant H2O2 were actually operant.
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Biosynthesis ; Fosfomycin -- Biosynthesis ; Nonheme Iron Proteins -- Chemistry ; Oxidoreductases -- Chemistry ; Peroxidases -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Materials Letters, Oct 15, 2013, Vol.109, p.283(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2013.07.054 Byline: Chen Wang, Fangjie Xu, Hongchen Gu Abstract: The physicochemical properties and biomedical applications of Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres are strongly dependent on their size. Herein we report a new approach to tune the size of carboxyl-functionalized Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres via a polyol process. The diameter of Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres can be tuned in the range of 300-900nm by simply changing the reactant mixing process while keeping other conditions constant. Mild mixing process produces Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres with large size while vigorous mixing process produces small microspheres. The mixing process does not significantly change the composition, surface and magnetic properties of the Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres. A possible mechanism for the influence of mixing process on the size of Fe.sub.3O.sub.4 microspheres is also proposed in this paper. Author Affiliation: School of Biomedical Engineering and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China Article History: Received 14 December 2012; Accepted 14 July 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering -- Magnetic Properties ; Polyols -- Magnetic Properties
    ISSN: 0167-577X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2011, Vol.26(5), pp.2436-2441
    Description: In this study, we present a portable and generic DNA bioassay system based on oligonucleotide synthesis followed by hybridization based detection. The system include two main parts, an oligonucleotide synthesizer and a fluorescence detection system. The oligonucleotide synthesizer is based on microfluidic technology and capable of synthesizing any desired oligonucleotide which can be either used as a primer for PCR based detection (external) or a probe for hybridization based detection (integrated) of a target DNA analyte. The oligonucleotide sequence can be remotely sent to the system. The integrated fluorescence detection system is based on a photodiode to detect Texas Red fluorophore as low as 0.5 fmol. The complete system, integrating the oligonucleotide synthesizer and fluorescence detection system, was successfully used to distinguish DNA from two different bacteria strains. The presented generic portable instrument has the potential to detect any desired DNA target sequence in the field. Potential applications are for homeland security and fast responses to emerging bio-threats.
    Keywords: DNA Synthesis ; DNA Biosensor ; Bio-Threat Detection ; Homeland Security ; Engineering ; Biology
    ISSN: 0956-5663
    E-ISSN: 1873-4235
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Oct, 2014, Vol.71, p.82(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.05.004 Byline: Chen Wang, Nikiforos Stamatiadis Abstract: acents The Aggregate Conflict Propensity Metric (ACPM) is a surrogate metric recently proposed and it is based on conflict studies and traffic simulations. acents This paper presents three experimental tests conducted to evaluate the reliability of ACPM. acents In each test, ACPM is compared to a traditional conflict indicator in terms of identifying and ranking safety of traffic conditions under various traffic volumes based on traffic simulations. acents ACPM shows its strength and reliability in all three tests, as it provides results highly consistent with the Highway Safety Manual. acents The experimental tests indicate that ACPM is a promising surrogate safety measure. Author Affiliation: (a) Postdoctoral Research Associate, School of Naval, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 DongChuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China (b) Civil Engineering Department, University of Kentucky, 265 Raymond Building, Lexington, KY 40506, USA Article History: Received 7 November 2013; Revised 19 March 2014; Accepted 5 May 2014
    ISSN: 0001-4575
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 21 October 2014, Vol.64(16), pp.C80-C80
    Description: Results Nicotine increases plaque size, and macrophage infiltration, decreases smooth muscle collagen content along with the increases in mast cells count and activation ratio at the lesion, which could be inhibited by DSCG.Nicotine induced mast cell degranulation at 2 hours comparing to PBS (43.60%...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 01 October 2013, Vol.110(40), pp.16039-43
    Description: Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community.
    Keywords: Barro Colorado Island (Bci) ; Niche Hypothesis ; Phylogenetic Age ; Phylogeny ; Biodiversity ; Models, Biological ; Phylogeny ; Trees -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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