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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 12 October 2018, Vol.362(6411), pp.166
    Keywords: Cyclonic Storms ; Disasters
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, September 2015, Vol.68(9), pp.1093-1094
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.009 Byline: Michael Garfinkle, Samuel Stewart, Heather Ward, Thomas Wilson Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 1013 Lansdowne Avenue, Suite 407, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7H 2C2 Article Note: (footnote) Conflicts of interest: We have neither conflicts of interest nor financial disclosures to report.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0895-4356
    E-ISSN: 1878-5921
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research, June 2018, Vol.264, pp.131-142
    Description: Relapse after discontinuation of ECT is significant in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine use of M-ECT in schizophrenia to guide clinical decision making for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. We reviewed studies examining the role of continuation (C-ECT) and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (M-ECT) in schizophrenia. Following PRISMA guidelines, we included randomized controlled trials, open label trials, retrospective chart reviews, case reports, and case series in this review. We evaluated adjunctive pharmacological regimens; ECT treatment parameters, including frequency, duration of continued treatment, electrode placement; clinical outcomes including cognitive side effects and relapse rates from included studies. Our findings suggest M-ECT could provide an effective form of relapse prevention in these patients and persistent cognitive side effects are minimal.
    Keywords: Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy ; Relapse Prevention ; Schizophrenia ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    E-ISSN: 1872-7123
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, February 2010, Vol.91(2), pp.440-8
    Description: The characterization of phytoestrogen intake and cancer risk has been hindered by the absence of accurate dietary phytoestrogen values. We examined the risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers relative to phytoestrogen intake on the basis of a comprehensive database. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics, a medical history, and 7-d records of diet were collected prospectively from participants (aged 40-79 y) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). Five hundred nine food items were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, and (13)C(3)-labeled internal standards were analyzed for isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein, biochanin A, and formononetin), lignans (secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol), and enterolignans from gut microbial metabolism in animal food sources (equol and enterolactone). From the direct analysis, values for 10,708 foods were calculated. Odds ratios (ORs) for breast (244 cases, 941 controls), colorectal (221 cases, 886 controls), and prostate (204 cases, 812 controls) cancers were calculated relative to phytoestrogen intake. Phytoestrogen intake was not associated with breast cancer among women or colorectal cancer among men. Among women, colorectal cancer risk was inversely associated with enterolactone (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) and total enterolignans (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.79), with a positive trend detected for secoisolariciresinol (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.96, 2.69). A positive trend between enterolignan intake and prostate cancer risk (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.66) was attenuated after adjustment for dairy intake (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.82). Dietary phytoestrogens may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer among women and prostate cancer among men.
    Keywords: Breast Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Colorectal Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Phytoestrogens -- Administration & Dosage ; Prostatic Neoplasms -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 5
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2011, Vol.106(7), pp.1063-1069
    Description: Phyto-oestrogens have been associated with a decreased risk for osteoporosis, but results from intervention and observational studies in Western countries have been inconsistent. In the present study, we investigated the association between habitual phyto-oestrogen intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcanaeum as a marker of bone density. We collected 7 d records of diet, medical history and demographic and anthropometric data from participants (aged 45–75 years) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study. Phyto-oestrogen (biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin; genistein, glycitein; matairesinol; secoisolariciresinol; enterolactone; equol) intake was determined using a newly developed food composition database. Bone density was assessed using BUA of the calcanaeum. Associations between bone density and phyto-oestrogen intake were investigated in 2580 postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy and 4973 men. Median intake of total phyto-oestrogens was 876 (interquartile range 412) μg/d in postmenopausal women and 1212 (interquartile range 604) μg/d in men. The non-soya isoflavones formononetin and biochanin A were marginally significant or significantly associated with BUA in postmenopausal women (β = 1·2; P  〈 0·1) and men (β = 1·2; P  〈 0·05), respectively; enterolignans and equol were positively associated with bone density in postmenopausal women, but this association became non-significant when dietary Ca was added to the model. In the lowest quintile of Ca intake, soya isoflavones were positively associated with bone density in postmenopausal women (β = 1·4; P  〈 0·1). The present results therefore suggest that non-soya isoflavones are associated with bone density independent of Ca, whereas the association with soya or soya isoflavones is affected by dietary Ca.
    Keywords: Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Bone Density; Phyto-oestrogens; Osteoporosis
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 6
    In: Kidney International, 2013, Vol.83(4), p.757
    Description: High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of fixed embryonic kidney tissues has advanced considerably in the past decade. Here we developed a new process for imaging whole metanephric organ culture at cell resolution in three dimensions over time. This technique combines the use of the newly available generation of infrared-optimized long working distance, high numerical aperture objectives and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy with a new system for vital staining of metanephric organ cultures with bodipy ceramide. This allows all cells in the organ culture to be visualized over time, enabling detailed observation of tissue morphogenesis. Thus, our method offers a powerful new approach for visualizing and understanding early events in renal development and for extending observations made in genetically manipulated models.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 15231755
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 15 November 2014, Vol.562, pp.123-123
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2014.08.004 Byline: Heather A. Ward, Gunter G.C. Kuhnle
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    E-ISSN: 1096-0384
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(9), p.e106330
    Description: Mutation of the X-linked oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene is embryonic lethal in males and results in craniofacial malformations and adult onset polycystic kidney disease in females. While the OFD1 protein localizes to centriolar satellites, centrosomes and basal bodies, its cellular function and how it relates to cystic kidney disease is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OFD1 is assembled into a protein complex that is localized to the primary cilium and contains the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and domain organizing flotillin proteins. This protein complex, which has similarity to a basolateral adhesion domain formed during cell polarization, also contains the polycystin proteins that when mutant cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Importantly, in human ADPKD cells where mutant polycystin-1 fails to localize to cilia, there is a concomitant loss of localization of polycystin-2, OFD1, EGFR and flotillin-1 to cilia. Together, these data suggest that polycystins are necessary for assembly of a novel flotillin-containing ciliary signaling complex and provide a molecular rationale for the common renal pathologies caused by OFD1 and PKD mutations.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Annals of internal medicine, 18 March 2014, Vol.160(6), pp.398-406
    Description: Guidelines advocate changes in fatty acid consumption to promote cardiovascular health. To summarize evidence about associations between fatty acids and coronary disease. MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through July 2013. Prospective, observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. Investigators extracted data about study characteristics and assessed study biases. There were 32 observational studies (530,525 participants) of fatty acids from dietary intake; 17 observational studies (25,721 participants) of fatty acid biomarkers; and 27 randomized, controlled trials (103,052 participants) of fatty acid supplementation. In observational studies, relative risks for coronary disease were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.07) for saturated, 0.99 (CI, 0.89 to 1.09) for monounsaturated, 0.93 (CI, 0.84 to 1.02) for long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated, 1.01 (CI, 0.96 to 1.07) for ω-6 polyunsaturated, and 1.16 (CI, 1.06 to 1.27) for trans fatty acids when the top and bottom thirds of baseline dietary fatty acid intake were compared. Corresponding estimates for circulating fatty acids were 1.06 (CI, 0.86 to 1.30), 1.06 (CI, 0.97 to 1.17), 0.84 (CI, 0.63 to 1.11), 0.94 (CI, 0.84 to 1.06), and 1.05 (CI, 0.76 to 1.44), respectively. There was heterogeneity of the associations among individual circulating fatty acids and coronary disease. In randomized, controlled trials, relative risks for coronary disease were 0.97 (CI, 0.69 to 1.36) for α-linolenic, 0.94 (CI, 0.86 to 1.03) for long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated, and 0.89 (CI, 0.71 to 1.12) for ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations. Potential biases from preferential publication and selective reporting. Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats. British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Cambridge National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, and Gates Cambridge.
    Keywords: Coronary Disease -- Blood ; Dietary Fats -- Blood ; Fatty Acids -- Blood
    ISSN: 00034819
    E-ISSN: 1539-3704
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, July 15, 2005, Vol.37, p.S45(1)
    Description: Socioeconomic status (SES) has been inversely associated with overweight and obesity in the literature, associations that are stronger and more consistent among women than men. Diet and leisure-time physical activity are associated with SES and with adiposity. However, the contribution of these lifestyle factors to the inverse association between SES and adiposity is unclear. Using the cross-sectional 1997/98 Ontario Food Survey, we examined the association between SES, diet, physical activity, and adiposity. Anthropometric measurements, sociodemographic data (age, sex, income, and education), and food frequency questionnaire data from 620 women and 467 men (ages 18 to 75) were analyzed through multivariate logistic regression and analysis of variance. Adiposity categories (healthy weight, overweight, and obese) were based on the Health Canada weight classification guidelines, which incorporate BMI and waist circumference. Among men, there was no association between adiposity and SES. Among women, adiposity was inversely related to income, education, and usual intake of fruits and was positively related to inactivity. Positive associations were detected between education and fruit intake and between income and dairy intake among women. Structural equation models will investigate whether diet and inactivity are full or partial mediators of the relationship between SES and adiposity. The findings will have implications for programs and policies designed to reduce the inequality of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic groups. This project was funded by Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation, Ontario and members of the University of Toronto Program in Food Safety.
    ISSN: 1499-4046
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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