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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Sept, 2012, Vol.168, p.96(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.04.016 Byline: Markus Wehrer (a)(b), Philipp Jaesche (c), Kai Uwe Totsche (a) Abstract: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States (c) Weizbuhl 19, 95497 Goldkronach, Germany Article History: Received 9 November 2011; Revised 6 April 2012; Accepted 9 April 2012
    Keywords: Propylene -- Models ; Propylene -- Analysis ; Propylene Glycol -- Models ; Propylene Glycol -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August, 2013, Vol.179, p.315(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.041 Byline: Markus Wehrer, Thilo Rennert, Kai Uwe Totsche Abstract: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Burgweg 11, 07743 Jena, Germany (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Smith Hall Room 136, 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, United States Article History: Received 31 October 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 19 March 2013
    Keywords: Water Pollution ; Thermodynamics ; Groundwater ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Pollution Control
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August, 2013, Vol.179, p.301(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.029 Byline: Markus Wehrer, Juliane Mai, Sabine Attinger, Kai U. Totsche Abstract: Release of contaminants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) is often limited by the dynamic exchange with aqueous solutions governed by a priori unknown kinetic laws. Release experiments require a thorough evaluation of the potential and limitations of kinetic models to reveal release processes. In this study, we investigated the characteristic concentration-time profiles of various models for the release of contaminants from an organic phase into an aqueous solution under no flow conditions. Criteria have been tested that allow for distinction of a first order one domain, a first order two domain, a spherical diffusion model, a spherical diffusion model with a time variable diffusion coefficient, a model for diffusion in a sphere with organic film, and a model for diffusion in a sphere with an aqueous film. The results can serve to evaluate the processes potentially governing release of organic contaminants from non-aqueous liquid phases. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 101 Warren Street, Newark 07102, United States (b) Lehrstuhl fur Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena, Germany (c) Department Computational Hydrosystems CHS, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH - UFZ, Permoserstra[sz]e 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany Article History: Received 31 October 2012; Revised 13 March 2013; Accepted 15 April 2013
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, September 2012, Vol.168, pp.96-106
    Description: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. ► Inverse modeling of hydrocarbon degradation and transport in a soil column. ► Modeling degradation of propylene glycol requires a dynamic biomass approach. ► Equifinality evaluation of inverse estimates of biodegradation parameters. Modeling transport and degradation of propylene glycol in porous media requires a dynamically reacting biomass.
    Keywords: Propylene Glycol ; Monod Kinetics ; Column Experiment ; Airfield Soil ; Equifinality ; Airport Winter Operation ; Biodegradation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2012, Vol.168, pp.96-106
    Description: A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by joint analysis of lab experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, published experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns were simulated inversely to receive the parameters of degradation. We evaluated different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model including different terms for degradation, such as zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass for their ability to explain the data. The general break-through behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. ; p. 96-106.
    Keywords: Biodegradation ; Propylene Glycol ; Porous Media ; Biomass ; Deicing Agents ; Solutes ; Mathematical Models ; Simulation Models ; Soil
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2013, Vol.179, pp.315-325
    Description: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. ; p. 315-325.
    Keywords: Nonaqueous Phase Liquids ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Dialysis ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Solubilization ; Solubility ; Mass Transfer ; Thermodynamics ; Groundwater Contamination
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August 2013, Vol.179, pp.315-325
    Description: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Release of PAHs from tar phases is severely restricted by retarded pore diffusion.
    Keywords: Aging ; Coal Tar ; Manufactured Gas Plant Sites ; Tar Processing Facilities ; Reactive Transport ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2013, Vol.179, pp.301-314
    Description: Release of contaminants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) is often limited by the dynamic exchange with aqueous solutions governed by a priori unknown kinetic laws. Release experiments require a thorough evaluation of the potential and limitations of kinetic models to reveal release processes. In this study, we investigated the characteristic concentration-time profiles of various models for the release of contaminants from an organic phase into an aqueous solution under no flow conditions. Criteria have been tested that allow for distinction of a first order one domain, a first order two domain, a spherical diffusion model, a spherical diffusion model with a time variable diffusion coefficient, a model for diffusion in a sphere with organic film, and a model for diffusion in a sphere with an aqueous film. The results can serve to evaluate the processes potentially governing release of organic contaminants from non-aqueous liquid phases. ; p. 301-314.
    Keywords: Nonaqueous Phase Liquids ; Models ; Aqueous Solutions ; Diffusivity
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August 2013, Vol.179, pp.301-314
    Description: Release of contaminants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) is often limited by the dynamic exchange with aqueous solutions governed by unknown kinetic laws. Release experiments require a thorough evaluation of the potential and limitations of kinetic models to reveal release processes. In this study, we investigated the characteristic concentration-time profiles of various models for the release of contaminants from an organic phase into an aqueous solution under no flow conditions. Criteria have been tested that allow for distinction of a first order one domain, a first order two domain, a spherical diffusion model, a spherical diffusion model with a time variable diffusion coefficient, a model for diffusion in a sphere with organic film, and a model for diffusion in a sphere with an aqueous film. The results can serve to evaluate the processes potentially governing release of organic contaminants from non-aqueous liquid phases. Identification of rate limiting release processes from NAPL requires thorough model evaluation and long experimental duration.
    Keywords: Spherical Film Diffusion ; Contaminant Release ; Napl ; First Order Kinetics ; Dual Domain ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014, Vol.21(15), pp.8964-8980
    Description: Non-invasive spatially resolved monitoring techniques may hold the key to observe heterogeneous flow and transport behavior of contaminants in soils. In this study, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during an infiltration experiment with deicing chemical in a small field lysimeter. Deicing chemicals like potassium formate, which frequently impact soils on airport sites, were infiltrated during snow melt. Chemical composition of seepage water and the electrical response was recorded over the spring period 2010. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs are able to show the infiltration of the melt water loaded with ionic constituents of deicing chemicals and their degradation product hydrogen carbonate. The tomographs indicate early breakthrough behavior in parts of the profile. Groundtruthing with pore fluid conductivity and water content variations shows disagreement between expected and observed bulk conductivity. This was attributed to the different sampling volume of traditional methods and ERT due to a considerable fraction of immobile water in the soil. The results show that ERT can be used as a soil monitoring tool on airport sites if assisted by common soil monitoring techniques.
    Keywords: Preferential flow ; Ground truth ; Degradation ; Heterogeneous transport ; Mobile immobile ; Electrical resistivity ; Degradable tracer ; Non-invasive monitoring ; Propylene glycol ; Unsaturated ; Vadose
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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