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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July, 2014, Vol.74, p.21(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.02.014 Byline: Monika Welc, Emmanuel Frossard, Simon Egli, Else K. Bunemann, Jan Jansa Abstract: The abundance, distribution and functions of soil fungi in alpine ecosystems remain poorly understood. We aimed at linking the fungal community structure with soil enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of several plants associating with mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular, ecto- and ericoid) and growing along a soil developmental gradient on the forefield of an alpine glacier. Fungal communities in roots and in rhizosphere soils were assessed using a site-tailored set of quantitative PCR assays with fluorescent hydrolysis probes. Enzymatic activities of mycorrhizal roots and rhizosphere soils were assessed using fluorogenic substrates. In this study we addressed: i) whether and how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils change along the soil developmental gradient, ii) whether the type of mycorrhiza shows a clear relationship to the pattern of enzymatic activities in the rhizosphere, and iii) how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils is related to plant species abundances along the soil chronosequence. The results suggest that plant identity affected the structure of both ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in rhizosphere soil and roots, whereas the community of non-mycorrhizal fungi was rather dictated by the soil developmental stage. Both plant identity and associated mycorrhizal fungi affected the enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere soil. Species-specific elevations of rhizosphere enzyme activities were detected for Salix helvetica (chitinase and [alpha]-glucosidase), Rhododendron ferrugineum ([alpha]-glucosidase and sulfatase), and Agrostis gigantea (phosphatase and xylosidase). These results indicate different functional roles played by different types of mycorrhizal symbiosis in a young alpine ecosystem. Author Affiliation: (a) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, FMG C 18, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau, ZH, Switzerland (b) Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Zurcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, ZH, Switzerland (c) Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, VideAska 1083, 14220, Praha 4, KrA, Czech Republic Article History: Received 20 August 2013; Revised 17 February 2014; Accepted 20 February 2014
    Keywords: Alpine Ecosystems ; Enzymes ; Plants (Organisms) ; Hydrolysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June, 2012, Vol.49, p.184(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.01.032 Byline: Monika Welc (a), Else K. Bunemann (a), Andreas Flie[sz]bach (b), Emmanuel Frossard (a), Jan Jansa (a)(c) Abstract: Microbial communities are important components of terrestrial ecosystems. The importance of their diversity and functions for natural systems is well recognized. However, a better understanding of successional changes of microbial communities over long time scales is still required. In this work, the size and composition of microbial communities in soils of a deglaciation chronosequence at the Damma glacier forefield were studied by fatty acid profiling. Soil fatty acid concentrations clearly increased with soil age. The abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), bacteria and other soil fungi, however, were more affected by abiotic soil parameters like carbon content and pH than by soil age. Analysis of ratios of the different microbial groups (AMF, fungi, bacteria) along the soil chronosequence indicated that: i) the ratios of AMF to bacteria and AMF to fungi decreased with soil age; and ii) the ratio of fungi to bacteria remained unchanged along the soil chronosequence. These two pieces of evidence suggest that the evolution of this ecosystem proceeds at an uneven pace over time and that the role of AMF is less important in older, more organic and acidified soils than in mineral soils. In contrast to other studies, no successional replacement of bacteria with fungi in more acidified and organic soil was observed. Author Affiliation: (a) ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, FMG C 18, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (ZH), Switzerland (b) Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Department of Soil Sciences, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland (c) Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, VideAska 1083, Praha 4 - KrA, Czech Republic Article History: Received 10 October 2011; Revised 21 January 2012; Accepted 30 January 2012
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis ; Organic Farming -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Bacteria -- Analysis ; Fatty Acids -- Analysis ; Terrestrial Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Fungi -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2010, Vol.42(9), pp.1534-1540
    Description: The influence of mycelium of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and , on other soil microorganisms, was examined in root-free soil with and without organic substrate amendment in terms of cellulose. The AM fungi were grown in symbiosis with cucumber in a compartmented growth system, which allowed AM fungal external mycelium to grow into root-free compartments. The fungicide Benomyl was applied to the root-free compartments to create an alternative non-mycorrhizal control treatment. Whole cell biomarker fatty acids were employed to quantify different groups of soil microorganisms including the two AM fungi. Abundance of most microbial groups were reduced by external mycelium of both AM fungi, though differential effects on the microbial community composition were observed between the two AM fungi as revealed from principal component analysis. Inhibition of other soil microorganisms was more pronounced in root-free soil with mycelium of than with mycelium of . In general, cellulose increased the amount of biomarker fatty acids of most groups of soil microorganisms, but cellulose did not affect the influence of AM fungi on other soil microorganisms. Benomyl suppressed growth of the external mycelium of the two AM fungi and had limited non-target effects on other microbial groups. In conclusion, our results show differential effects of external mycelium of AM fungi on other soil microbial communities, though both AM fungi included in the study overall inhibited most microbial groups as examined using whole cell biomarker fatty acids.
    Keywords: Whole Cell Biomarker Fatty Acids ; Mycorrhizosphere ; Bacteria ; Fungi ; Benomyl ; Cellulose ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July 2014, Vol.74, pp.21-30
    Description: The abundance, distribution and functions of soil fungi in alpine ecosystems remain poorly understood. We aimed at linking the fungal community structure with soil enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of several plants associating with mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular, ecto- and ericoid) and growing along a soil developmental gradient on the forefield of an alpine glacier. Fungal communities in roots and in rhizosphere soils were assessed using a site-tailored set of quantitative PCR assays with fluorescent hydrolysis probes. Enzymatic activities of mycorrhizal roots and rhizosphere soils were assessed using fluorogenic substrates. In this study we addressed: i) whether and how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils change along the soil developmental gradient, ii) whether the type of mycorrhiza shows a clear relationship to the pattern of enzymatic activities in the rhizosphere, and iii) how the structure of fungal communities and enzymatic activities in rhizosphere soils is related to plant species abundances along the soil chronosequence. The results suggest that plant identity affected the structure of both ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in rhizosphere soil and roots, whereas the community of non-mycorrhizal fungi was rather dictated by the soil developmental stage. Both plant identity and associated mycorrhizal fungi affected the enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere soil. Species-specific elevations of rhizosphere enzyme activities were detected for (chitinase and α-glucosidase), (α-glucosidase and sulfatase), and (phosphatase and xylosidase). These results indicate different functional roles played by different types of mycorrhizal symbiosis in a young alpine ecosystem.
    Keywords: Fungal Community ; Structure and Functions ; Mycorrhiza ; Rhizosphere ; Enzymes ; Salix Helvetica ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June 2012, Vol.49, pp.184-192
    Description: Microbial communities are important components of terrestrial ecosystems. The importance of their diversity and functions for natural systems is well recognized. However, a better understanding of successional changes of microbial communities over long time scales is still required. In this work, the size and composition of microbial communities in soils of a deglaciation chronosequence at the Damma glacier forefield were studied by fatty acid profiling. Soil fatty acid concentrations clearly increased with soil age. The abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), bacteria and other soil fungi, however, were more affected by abiotic soil parameters like carbon content and pH than by soil age. Analysis of ratios of the different microbial groups (AMF, fungi, bacteria) along the soil chronosequence indicated that: i) the ratios of AMF to bacteria and AMF to fungi decreased with soil age; and ii) the ratio of fungi to bacteria remained unchanged along the soil chronosequence. These two pieces of evidence suggest that the evolution of this ecosystem proceeds at an uneven pace over time and that the role of AMF is less important in older, more organic and acidified soils than in mineral soils. In contrast to other studies, no successional replacement of bacteria with fungi in more acidified and organic soil was observed. ► Microbial succession at a glacier forefield was investigated by fatty acid profiling. ► Concentrations of fatty acids in soil increase with soil age. ► Soil C and pH affect abundances of both soil bacteria and fungi. ► Ratios of AMF to bacteria or to soil fungi decrease with soil age. ► Ratio of soil fungi to bacteria remains constant along the soil chronosequence.
    Keywords: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Fame) ; Glacier Forefield ; Soil Chronosequence ; Microbial Community ; Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Community Size ; Environmental Determinants ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BioEnergy Research, 2017, Vol.10(4), pp.1094-1104
    Description: To assess the effects of cutting phenology on early growth performance of three willow clones grown under different weed treatments and planting dates, freshly harvested (non-dormant) and cold-stored (dormant) cuttings from willow clone Tora, Jorr, and Olof were planted in bucket experiment outdoors in central Sweden on five planting dates (May–June 2013) with or without a model weed (spring barley). Non-dormant cuttings sprouted faster than dormant cuttings when planted early in the season. For cuttings planted later in the season, bud sprouting was affected only by willow clone. Aboveground biomass production was affected by cutting phenology, planting date, clone, and weed treatment. When planted on May 3 and May 10, biomass produced from non-dormant and dormant cuttings did not differ, while willows grown from dormant cuttings produced 59% more aboveground biomass than willows grown from non-dormant cuttings when planted on May 24–June 16. Tora produced on average 12% more biomass than Jorr and Olof, and weed competition reduced aboveground biomass production on average with 36%. The ability of willow to suppress weeds (WSA) was 26 (non-dormant cuttings) and 12% (dormant cuttings) higher for willows planted on May 3 compared with WSA of willows grown from cuttings planted later in the season. The ability to tolerate competition from weeds (WT) was 51 and 52% lower for willows grown from non-dormant and dormant cuttings planted late in the season compared with WT of willows planted earlier in the season. We conclude that planting with long-term cold storage of willow cuttings can be replaced with planting freshly harvested cuttings when planting is performed in early season, and that weed competition strongly reduces biomass production. Weed control during the establishment phase is crucial in order to maximize willow biomass production.
    Keywords: Biomass production ; Bud burst ; Growing-degree days ; Salix ; Short rotation coppice ; Weed suppressive ability ; Weed tolerance
    ISSN: 1939-1234
    E-ISSN: 1939-1242
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BioEnergy Research, 2018, Vol.11(3), pp.703-714
    Description: To assess the effects of propagule phenology and planting system on growth performance of three willow clones grown under different weeding regimes, a field experiment was performed in central Sweden 2014–2016. Freshly harvested (non-dormant) and cold-stored (dormant) cuttings (planted vertically) and billets (planted horizontally) from willow clones Tordis, Tora, and Jorr were planted in weeded and in unweeded plots. Sprouting was significantly higher for willows grown from non-dormant (74%) than dormant (58%) propagules and for cuttings (84%) compared with billets (42%). Survival was higher for willows from non-dormant propagules in weeded (71%) compared with unweeded (63%) plots, willows from dormant propagules in weeded (72%) compared with unweeded (60%) plots, and for willows from cuttings (93%) compared with billets (39%). During 2014–2016, aboveground biomass production was significantly higher for willows from cuttings (11.71 t DW ha −1 ) than from billets (6.13 t DW ha −1 ), grown in weeded (15.29 t DW ha −1 ) than in unweeded (2.55 t DW ha −1 ) plots, and differed significantly among willow clones (11.48, 9.27, and 6.01 t DW ha −1 for Tordis, Tora, and Jorr, respectively). In this study, (i) planting with cold-stored and freshly harvested willow propagules was equally successful and therefore cold storage could be potentially avoided and replaced with planting of freshly harvested propagules in early spring; however, (ii) in terms of measured growth performance parameters, willows grown from cuttings performed better than grown from billets; and (iii) weed competition significantly reduced survival and aboveground biomass production, confirming that weed control during establishment of willow is crucial.
    Keywords: Billet ; Biomass production ; Bud burst ; Cutting ; Horizontal planting ; Salix ; Short rotation coppice ; SRC ; Survival ; Vertical planting ; Weeds
    ISSN: 1939-1234
    E-ISSN: 1939-1242
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42, pp.1534-1540
    Description: The influence of mycelium of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae, on other soil microorganisms, was examined in root-free soil with and without organic substrate amendment in terms of cellulose. The AM fungi were grown in symbiosis with cucumber in a compartmented growth system, which allowed AM fungal external mycelium to grow into root-free compartments. The fungicide Benomyl was applied to the root-free compartments to create an alternative non-mycorrhizal control treatment. Whole cell biomarker fatty acids were employed to quantify different groups of soil microorganisms including the two AM fungi. Abundance of most microbial groups were reduced by external mycelium of both AM fungi, though differential effects on the microbial community composition were observed between the two AM fungi as revealed from principal component analysis. Inhibition of other soil microorganisms was more pronounced in root-free soil with mycelium of G. mosseae than with mycelium of G. intraradices. In general, cellulose increased the amount of biomarker fatty acids of most groups of soil microorganisms, but cellulose did not affect the influence of AM fungi on other soil microorganisms. Benomyl suppressed growth of the external mycelium of the two AM fungi and had limited non-target effects on other microbial groups. In conclusion, our results show differential effects of external mycelium of AM fungi on other soil microbial communities, though both AM fungi included in the study overall inhibited most microbial groups as examined using whole cell biomarker fatty acids. ; Includes references ; p. 1534-1540.
    Keywords: Fatty Acid Composition ; Microbial Growth ; Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Soil Biology ; Benomyl ; Glomus Mosseae ; Biomarkers ; Cucumbers ; Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Cellulose ; Cucumis Sativus ; Soil Microorganisms ; Microbial Competition ; Glomus Intraradices ; Microbial Ecology ; Soil ; Mycelium ; Root-Free Soil ; Microbial Community Composition
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2016, Vol.404(1), pp.251-261
    Description: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Di-nitrogen (N₂)-fixing plants are absent in the pioneer stages of glacial forefields in the European Alps despite low amounts of nitrogen (N) in the soil. We aimed to evaluate whether symbiotic N₂-fixation is needed to meet the N demand of plants during the early stages of soil formation, and how phosphorus (P) availability affects plant establishment. METHODS: We measured total and available N and P in soil and N and P in the vegetation along the 137 year chronosequence in front of the Damma glacier (Switzerland). RESULTS: Available N as determined by in situ resin N decreased from the pioneer stage (〈16 years since deglaciation) to the intermediate (57–80 years), likely resulting from increased plant N uptake and reduced funnelling of N by rocks. N concentrations in the vegetation were positively correlated to in situ resin N, and the N:P-ratio of the vegetation was negatively correlated with P concentrations in the vegetation. CONCLUSIONS: The N requirement of plants in the pioneer stage of soil development in the forefield is fulfilled by atmospheric N deposition being funnelled between rocks. N₂-fixation is not needed as the vegetation is often limited by P, or co-limited by N and P. ; p. 251-261.
    Keywords: Alpine vegetation ; Lotus alpinus ; N-fixation ; Nitrogen ; N deposition ; Phosphorus ; Resin bags
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Acta Agrobotanica, 01 December 2012, Vol.62(1), pp.67-76
    Description: The significance of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi for the growth and development of Helichrysum arenarium was investigated in two independent experiments. In the first experiment the association of root colonization level with the pluviothermal conditions within the growing season...
    Keywords: Helichrysum Arenarium (L.) Moench ; Generative Potential ; Potential and Actual Fertility ; Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Inoculation of Growing Medium
    ISSN: 00650951
    E-ISSN: 2300-357X
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