European Journal of Forest Research, 2009, Vol.128(5), pp.483-492
In this study, the supply and input–output balances of phosphorus (P) were investigated for a 10-year-period at 85 long-term monitoring sites in German forest ecosystems under the European Level II programme. These sites encompass 23 European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, 9 oak stands comprised of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) and/or sessile oak ( Quercus petraea Liebl.), 20 Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and 33 Norway spruce ( Picea abies H.Karst.) stands. We quantified P concentrations in needles and leaves, P inputs from the atmosphere, P outputs through leaching and harvesting, and total P in the soil and humus layers. The P concentrations in European beech leaves from two sites (〉1 mg P g −1 dry weight), and in Norway spruce needles from four sites (〉1.2 mg P g −1 dry weight), were deficient over several years. In contrast, the oak and Scots pine sites were well supplied with P. When P removal through harvesting was disregarded, P balances were positive or stable (median 0.21 kg P ha −1 a −1 ). With harvesting, balances were mostly negative (median −0.35 kg P ha −1 a −1 ), with long-term P removal from the forest ecosystems.
Input–output balance ; Phosphorus ; Forest ecosystems ; Nutrient supply ; N:P ratio ; Level II sites
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