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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.261-271
    Description: Based on the results of the atmospheric deposition classification of the year 1989, a methodical approach should be introduced, which—based on the modelled total deposition rates—enables us to characterise the input situation of forest monitoring plots and to delimit load areas in Germany. In 1989, the deposition situation in nearly 1,800 forest monitoring sites (BZE/extensive Soil Condition Inventory) in Germany could be explained by four factors (or three, excluding sea salt impact) with the help of a factor analysis. The factor values were grouped into six deposition types with typical compounds and regional patterns. The classified input rates of the soil inventory plots adequately represent the stress situation and deposition changes in Germany. The application of the statistical approach on the level of Brandenburg clarifies the special local input situation. Due to the special combination of deposed elements, the sources of emissions can be characterised as well. When the soil inventory is repeated, a project planned for 2006, this approach can be used in order to determine homogenous areas for stratified data evaluation.
    Keywords: Atmospheric deposition ; Emissions ; Multivariate statistics ; Germany ; Brandenburg ; Forest ; Monitoring
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, August 2014, Vol.20(8), pp.2644-2662
    Description: The ational orest oil nventory () provides the reenhouse as eporting in ermany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon () stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and land cover data. Mineral soil stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the oil ap of ermany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer pool as stable although was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha yr. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of , whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil . We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine‐earth stock variances, rather by the concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for entral urope, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil pool development for a certain period.
    Keywords: C/N Ratio ; Carbon Sequestration ; Carbon Stocks ; Forest Stand Type ; Mineral Soil ; Nation Forest Soil Inventory ; Organic Layer ; Soil Groups ; Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Survey ; Tree Species ; Uncertainties
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental monitoring and assessment, January 2014, Vol.186(1), pp.257-75
    Description: The consistency of visual assessment of tree defoliation, which represents the most widely used indicator for tree condition, has frequently been in the focus of scientific criticism. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the consistency of the defoliation data from the annual national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from 1992 to 2012. Defoliation assessments were carried out in stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur and Quercus petraea), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and pine (Pinus sylvestris). Among the observer teams, the absolute deviation from the observer mean of all years was ±4.4 % defoliation and the standard deviation of defoliation was ±5.5 %. On average, 94 % of the assessments were located within the ±10 % interval of deviation from the mean. Tree species-specific differences did not occur when all years were considered. A trend towards increasing consistency was observed from 1992 to 2012, in particular for oak and spruce. The deviation of defoliation assessments depended non-linearly on the level of defoliation with highest deviations at intermediate defoliations. In spite of high correlations and agreements among observers, systematic errors were determined in nearly every year. However, within-observer variances were higher than between-observer variances. The present study applied a three-way evaluation approach for the assessment of consistency and demonstrated that the visual defoliation assessment at the national training courses in general produced consistent data within Germany from 1992 to 2012.
    Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Forestry -- Education ; Trees -- Physiology
    ISSN: 01676369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 4
    Description: Spatio-temporal modelling of tree defoliation data of German forest condition survey is presented. In the present study generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the spatio-temporal trends of defoliation of the main tree species from 1989 to 2015 and to examine the suitability of different monitoring grid resolutions. Although data has been collected since 1989, this is the first time the spatio-temporal modelling for entire Germany has been carried out. Besides the space-time component, stand age showed a significant effect on defoliation. The mean age and the species-specific relation between defoliation and age determined the general level of defoliation whereas fluctuations of defoliation were primarily related to weather conditions. The study indicates a strong association between drought stress and defoliation of all four main tree species. Besides direct effects of weather conditions, indirect effects seem to play a further role. Defoliation of the comparably drought-tolerant species pine and oak was primarily affected by insect infestations following drought whereas considerable time for regeneration was required by beech following drought stress and recurring substantial fructification. South-eastern Germany has emerged as the region with the highest defoliation since the drought year 2003. This region was characterized by the strongest water deficits in 2003 compared to the long-term reference period. The present study gives evidence that the focus has moved from air pollution to climate change. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal model was used to carry out a simulation study to compare different survey grid resolutions. This grid examination indicated that an 8 x 8 km grid instead of the standard 16 x 16 km grid is necessary for spatio-temporal trend estimation and for detecting hot-spots in defoliation in space and time, especially regarding oak.
    Keywords: Statistics - Applications
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Central European Forestry Journal, 01 June 2017, Vol.63(2-3), pp.105-112
    Description: Close to one third of Germany is forested. Forests are able to store significant quantities of carbon (C) in the biomass and in the soil. Coordinated by the Thünen Institute, the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) and the National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) have generated data to estimate the carbon storage capacity of forests. The second NFI started in 2002 and had been repeated in 2012. The reporting time for the NFSI was 1990 to 2006. Living forest biomass, deadwood, litter and soils up to a depth of 90 cm have stored 2500 t of carbon within the reporting time. Over all 224 t C ha-1 in aboveground and belowground biomass, deadwood and soil are stored in forests. Specifically, 46% stored in above-ground and below-ground biomass, 1% in dead wood and 53% in the organic layer together with soil up to 90 cm. Carbon stocks in mineral soils up to 30 cm mineral soil increase about 0.4 t C ha-1 yr-1 stocks between the inventories while the carbon pool in the organic layers declined slightly. In the living biomass carbon stocks increased about 1.0 t C ha-1 yr-1. In Germany, approximately 58 mill. tonnes of CO2 were sequestered in 2012 (NIR 2017).
    Keywords: Forests Ecosystems ; Soil ; Carbon Stocks ; Germany ; National Forests Inventory ; National Forests Soil Inventory
    ISSN: 2454034X
    E-ISSN: 2454-0358
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  • 6
    Book
    Book
    Eberswalde: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Language: German
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 7
    Book
    Book
    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Language: German
    Keywords: Waldbau ; Waldboden ; Luftverunreinigender Stoff ; Stickstoff ; Bodenversauerung
    ISBN: 9783865761613
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2009, Vol.128(5), pp.483-492
    Description: In this study, the supply and input–output balances of phosphorus (P) were investigated for a 10-year-period at 85 long-term monitoring sites in German forest ecosystems under the European Level II programme. These sites encompass 23 European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, 9 oak stands comprised of common oak ( Quercus robur L.) and/or sessile oak ( Quercus petraea Liebl.), 20 Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and 33 Norway spruce ( Picea abies H.Karst.) stands. We quantified P concentrations in needles and leaves, P inputs from the atmosphere, P outputs through leaching and harvesting, and total P in the soil and humus layers. The P concentrations in European beech leaves from two sites (〉1 mg P g −1 dry weight), and in Norway spruce needles from four sites (〉1.2 mg P g −1 dry weight), were deficient over several years. In contrast, the oak and Scots pine sites were well supplied with P. When P removal through harvesting was disregarded, P balances were positive or stable (median 0.21 kg P ha −1  a −1 ). With harvesting, balances were mostly negative (median −0.35 kg P ha −1  a −1 ), with long-term P removal from the forest ecosystems.
    Keywords: Input–output balance ; Phosphorus ; Forest ecosystems ; Nutrient supply ; N:P ratio ; Level II sites
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 10
    Book
    Book
    Braunschweig, Germany: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Language: German
    Keywords: Waldschaden ; Dokumentation ; Deutschland
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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