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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2012, Vol.184(4), pp.2275-2284
    Description: The technique of diffusion gradient in thin films (DGT) for assessing bioavailable metals has not been tested under field conditions. We assessed the relationships of DGT- and cation exchange resin-membrane-measured concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn with plant uptake of the metals under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse, the effective concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn by DGT correlated significantly with uptake by sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), but cation exchange resin-membrane-measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn did not correlate with sorghum uptake. In the field, the DGT-measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were not linearly related to uptake Cd, Pb, and Zn by lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) except for Cu uptake ( r  = 0.87, p  〈 0.05). Similarly, it was only the resin-membrane-extractable Pb that correlated with Pb uptake by lettuce ( r  = 0.77; p  〈 0.05). However, fitting non-linear regression models improved the plant metal uptake predictions by DGT-measured bioavailable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn under field conditions. In conclusion, the DGT technique was fairly predictive of bioavailability in the greenhouse, but not in the field.
    Keywords: DGT device ; Cation exchange resin membrane ; Effective concentration (CE) ; Lettuce ; Metal uptake ; Sorghum
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, May 2013, Vol.91(7), pp.928-934
    Description: ► Incomplete dissipation of antibiotics increases risks of their accumulation in soil. ► Sulfonamides are leached down to 40 cm depth under routine farm practice. ► Sulfonamide concentrations in leachate exceed 100 ng/L under worst-case conditions. ► Leaching increases in the order: fluoroquinolones 〈 tetracyclines 〈 sulfonamides. ► Sulfonamide leaching is governed by preferential flow. Veterinary antibiotics reach the soil environment by manure application, where they accumulate or are prone to vertical translocation. We assumed that a high pH value at slightly calcareous soil properties should retain tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones even at high manure loads, whereas it should facilitate leaching of sulfonamides. Hence, we investigated the transport of manure-added antibiotics in a soil developed from calcareous parent material on a farm in peri-urban Beijing, China. Leachate was collected from zero-tension samplers, installed at 40 cm depth under undisturbed soil, which was treated according to (i) routine farm practice and (ii) worst-case conditions (high antibiotic concentrations, irrigation imitating heavy rainfall). Additionally, the soil depth distribution of pharmaceuticals at the end of the leaching experiment was analysed. Under routine farm practice, sulfamethazine was repeatedly detected in the leachate with a maximum concentration of 0.12 μg L . All applied substances were still detected in soil after 53 days, suggesting that there was no overall rapid and complete dissipation. Worst-case conditions enhanced vertical translocation; all leachate samples contained sulfonamides (up to 653 μg L sulfamethazine), and even tetracyclines were found in the leachate once, with doxycycline reaching the highest concentration (0.19 μg L ). The concentrated simultaneous occurrence of sulfonamides with the bromide tracer in leachate samples pointed to preferential flow as underlying transport process. The high pH values did not prevent the single leaching event for tetracyclines and hardly affected overall leaching behaviour. The applied fluoroquinolones were not significantly translocated below 4 cm depth, irrespective of irrigation and high manure addition.
    Keywords: Veterinary Antibiotics ; Manure ; Lysimeter ; Preferential Flow ; China ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, January 2017, Vol.104, pp.175-184
    Description: Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is regulated by microbial activity, which strongly depends on the availability of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Yet, the special role of N on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is still under discussion. The recent concept of microbial N mining predicts increasing SOC mineralization under N-deficiency, which is in contrast to the generally accepted stoichiometric decomposition theory. Following this concept we hypothesized that spatio-temporal patterns of microbial activity are controlled by SOC and N contents, but that microorganisms maintain their functionality to mineralize C under conditions of N deficiency because of microbial N mining. To test this hypothesis, we added glucose to an arable soil that had experienced increasing losses of C -derived SOM after one, three, and seven years of bare fallow and measured spatio-temporal patterns of substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The SIR measurements were performed with and without additions of mineral N. Selected samples were treated with C sugar in order to trace the source of CO emissions (sugar vs. SOC-derived) by natural C abundance measurements. Sugar additions were repeated after the first SIR experiment to derive information on changing N availability. The results showed that spatial patterns of SIR were not consistently regulated by SOC and N. On a temporal scale, the maximum microbial growth peak declined by 47% from one year bare fallow to seven years bare fallow but soils often developed a second growth phase in the 7th year of fallow. Intriguingly, the maximum microbial growth peak increased again when N was added together with the glucose and no second growth peak occurred. A similar effect was observed after repeated sugar additions but without N additions. The C experiment revealed a slightly higher contribution of SOC-derived CO in N-deficient samples (16.7%) than in N-fertilized samples (14.6%). We conclude that the first SIR peak was related to the supply of immediately available N while the second growth phase indicated a delayed release of N, due to N mining from SOM. Hence, microbes were able to compensate for initial N limitation and there was no significant change in the overall substrate-induced CO release with proceeding time under fallow.
    Keywords: Substrate-Induced Respiration ; Microbial Nitrogen Mining ; Bare Fallow ; Priming Effects ; Microbial Activity ; Nutrient Limitation ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2018, Vol.119, pp.152-161
    Description: Nitrogen (N) deposition to soils is globally rising, but its effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is still uncertain. Moreover, common theories of stoichiometric decomposition and microbial N mining predict opposing effects of N supply on SOC turnover. We hypothesized that the effect of N deposition on SOC turnover depends on initial soil nutrient conditions. Thus, we sampled tropical forests and rubber gardens with pronounced gradients of nutrient availability from the topsoil to the deep subsoil (up to 400 cm) and measured substrate-induced respiration (SIR) for 30 days in four treatments (C, CN, CP, CNP additions). A natural C abundance approach was conducted to quantify priming effects (PE) of the added C on SOC mineralization. For this purpose we assessed the CO isotope composition after adding a C4 sugar to the C3 soil; to correct for isotopic fractionation a treatment with C3 sugar additions served as control. We found that nutrient additions to topsoil did neither alter cumulative CO release within 30 days (SIR ) nor PE (PE = 1.6, i.e., sugar additions raised the release of SOC-derived CO by a factor of 1.6). In the upper subsoil (30–100 cm), however, both CN and CP additions increased SIR (by 239% and 92%, respectively) and the PE (PE = 5.2 and 3.3, respectively) relative to the treatments that received C only (PE = 1.7), while CNP additions revealed the largest increase of SIR (267%) and PE (PE = 6.0). In the deep subsoil (〉130 cm depth), only the CNP addition consistently increased SIR (by 871%) and PE (PE = 5.2) relative to only C additions (PE = 2.0). We conclude that microbial activity was not limited by nutrients in the topsoil but was co-limited by both N and P in the subsoil. The results imply that microbes mine nutrients from previously unavailable pools under the conditions that 1) deficiency actually exists, 2) co-limitation is alleviated, and 3) nutrient reserves are present. Yet, as opposed to microbial nutrient mining theories, we showed that the subsoil PE is highest when nutrient supply matches microbial demand. As a result also N deposition might exert variable effects on SOC turnover in tropical soils: it might have no effect in nutrient-rich topsoils and in co-limited subsoils without P reserves but might increase SOC turnover in co-limited subsoils with potentially acquirable P reserves.
    Keywords: Microbial N Mining ; Microbial P Mining ; Priming ; Substrate-Induced Respiration ; Nutrient Limitation ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(1), p.e0170478
    Description: Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, April, 2012, Vol.175-176, p.21(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.01.017 Byline: Christine Hbirkou, Stefan Patzold, Anne-Katrin Mahlein, Gerhard Welp Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy; Spatial variability; Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy; Partial least squares regression Abstract: A detailed knowledge on the heterogeneity of the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in agricultural soils is required to support applications such as precision agriculture and soil C monitoring. Imaging spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region has proven to be highly sensitive to organic soil components and can efficiently provide data with high spatial resolution. The objectives of our study were (i) to test the suitability of airborne hyperspectral imaging for the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of the SOC content at the field-scale, (ii) to investigate the impact of various soil surface conditions (roughness, vegetation) on SOC prediction and (iii) to produce SOC maps for arable fields on a pixel-wise basis. The soil reflectance was recorded by the aircraft-mounted hyperspectral sensor HyMap (450-2500nm) on test sites with the following varying soil surface conditions: bare soil, fine seed-bed; ploughed, bare soil; volunteer crops; straw residues. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed for data analysis. Our results reveal an accurate prediction of the SOC content at a comparatively small concentration range (8.3 to 18.5gSOCkg.sup.-1) on long-term uniformly cultivated fields. Site-specific characteristics influenced the calibration models; highest prediction accuracy was performed over a bare, fine soil (RMSEP=0.76gSOCkg.sup.-1; RPD=2.08). A generated pixel-wise map (8mx8m) allows the detection of small-scale spatial variability of SOC content and comparatively more realistic than an interpolated map. Thus, airborne hyperspectral imaging constitutes a substantial progress compared to point observations and facilitates well-directed applications in precision agriculture. Article History: Received 10 December 2010; Revised 28 November 2011; Accepted 12 January 2012
    Keywords: Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Folia Geobotanica, 2015, Vol.50(2), p.91(16)
    Description: Byline: Daniela Boecker (1), Csaba Centeri (2), Gerhard Welp (3), Bodo M. Moseler (1) Keywords: abandoned cropland; calcareous grassland; fen/steppe meadow; plant available phosphorus/nitrogen; seminatural vegetation; space-for-time substitution Abstract: This study deals with spontaneous regeneration of fen and steppe meadows and corresponding soil properties on extensively managed ex-arable fields. Our first main aim was to analyse the nature of relations between various vegetation and soil parameters and time since abandonment and to determine the time needed for regeneration. Our second major goal was to determine the main environmental factors influencing regeneration success. Time since abandonment of the studied areas was determined with military maps, aerial photographs and the help of local rangers. Stands which were presumably not ploughed for over 150 years were taken as a reference. Vegetation surveys and soil sampling were carried out in 307 plots with different soil moisture conditions. The correlation with time was tested for relevant vegetation and soil parameters. The influence of different parameters on the species composition was tested with a generalized linear mixed model. We found that vegetation and soil parameters approach the level of long-term (permanent) grassland in a similar asymptotic curve. Numerous characteristic target vegetation species and legally protected species have colonized the old fields. The time frame needed for regeneration can be stated to be 20--40 years for the majority of sites, but the proportion of favourable species in the resulting grasslands is divergent. The most important finding among soil properties was a pronounced negative effect of plant available phosphorus on the species composition of regenerating grassland. We conclude that relying on spontaneous recolonization for grassland restoration in central Hungary is promising, particularly on sites which were not fertilized intensively with phosphorus prior to abandonment. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Division Plant Nutrition -- Vegetation Ecology, University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 1, 53115, Bonn, Germany (2) Institute of and Landscape Management, Department of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology, Szent Istvan University, Pater K. u. 1., 2100, GodollA, Hungary (3) Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Division Soil Science, University of Bonn, Nussallee 13, 53115, Bonn, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 04/03/2015 Received Date: 18/05/2013 Accepted Date: 03/03/2015 Online Date: 02/07/2015 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s12224-015-9210-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Soil Moisture – Analysis ; Grasslands – Analysis ; Wildlife Conservation – Analysis
    ISSN: 1211-9520
    E-ISSN: 18749348
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, June, 2013, Vol.130, p.120(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2013.03.003 Byline: Britta Holbeck, Wulf Amelung, Andreas Wolf, Karl-Heinz Sudekum, Michael Schloter, Gerhard Welp Abstract: acents Soil texture and soil organic carbon content do not affect.sup.15N dynamic. acents .sup.15N release depends on fertilizer (chicken manure, mushroom compost, mineral N). acents Mustard intercropping is a tool to enhance N efficiency. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Bonn, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Soil Science and Soil Ecology, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany (b) RheinEnergie AG, Wasser I Zentrale Aufgaben I Wasserwirtschaft (WZW), Parkgurtel 24, 50606 Koln, Germany (c) University of Bonn, Institute of Animal Science, Endenicher Allee 15, 53115 Bonn, Germany (d) Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Research Unit for Environmental Genomics, Ingolstadter Landstr.1, 85758 Oberschleissheim, Germany Article History: Received 16 October 2012; Revised 22 February 2013; Accepted 9 March 2013
    Keywords: Genetic Research ; Cropping Systems ; Agricultural Industry ; Soil Ecology ; Fertilizer Industry ; Organic Fertilizers ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Pedosphere, April 2017, Vol.27(2), pp.380-386
    Description: Carbon fractions in soils apparently vary not only in space, but also over time. A lack of knowledge on the seasonal variability of labile carbon fractions under arable land hampers the reliability and comparability of soil organic carbon (SOC) surveys from different studies. Therefore, we studied the seasonal variability of two SOC fractions, particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), under maize cropping: POM was determined as the SOC content in particle-size fractions, and DOC was measured as the water-extractable SOC (WESOC) of air-dried soil. Ammonium, nitrate, and water-extractable nitrogen were measured as potential regulating factors of WESOC formation because carbon and nitrogen cycles in soils are strongly connected. There was a significant annual variation of WESOC (coefficient of variation (CV) = 30%). Temporal variations of SOC in particle-size fractions were smaller than those of WESOC. The stocks of SOC in particle-size fractions decreased with decreasing particle sizes, exhibiting a CV of 20% for the coarse sand-size fraction (250–2 000 μm), of 9% for the fine sand-size fraction (50–250 μm), and of 5% for the silt-size fraction (20–50 μm). The WESOC and SOC in particle-size fractions both peaked in March and reached the minimum in May/June and August, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the time of soil sampling during the course of a year, especially when investigating WESOC.
    Keywords: Carbon Turnover ; Carbon Pools ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Particle-Size Fractions ; Particulate Organic Matter ; Time of Soil Sampling ; Water-Extractable Soil Organic Carbon ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1002-0160
    E-ISSN: 2210-5107
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 August 2018, Vol.323, pp.31-40
    Description: Spatial patterns of soil respiration (SR) and its sensitivity to temperature (Q10) are one of the key uncertainties in climate change research but since their assessment is very time-consuming, large data sets can still not be provided. Here, we investigated the potential of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict SR and Q10 values for 124 soil samples of diverse land use types taken from a 2868 km catchment (Rur catchment, Germany/Belgium/Netherlands). Soil respiration at standardized temperature (25 °C) and soil moisture (45% of maximum water holding capacity, WHC) was successfully predicted by MIRS coupled with partial least square regression (PLSR, R  = 0.83). Also the Q10 value was predictable by MIRS-PLSR for a grassland submodel (R  = 0.75) and a cropland submodel (R  = 0.72) but not for forested sites (R  = 0.03). In order to provide soil respiration estimates for arbitrary conditions of temperature and soil moisture, more flexible models are required that can handle nonlinear and interacting relations. Therefore, we applied a Random Forest model, which includes the MIRS spectra, temperature, soil moisture, and land use as predictor variables. We could show that SR can be simultaneously predicted for any temperature (5–25 °C) and soil moisture level (30–75% of WHC), indicated by a high R of 0.73. We conclude that the combination of MIRS with sophisticated statistical prediction tools allows for a novel, rapid acquisition of SR and Q10 values across landscapes and thus to fill an important data gap in the validation of large scale carbon modeling.
    Keywords: Heterotrophic Soil Respiration ; Environmental Soil Classes ; Plsr ; Random Forest ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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