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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, April 2012, Vol.82(1), pp.82-85
    Description: ► We conduct a large-scale Internet dictator experiment with newspaper readers. ► When recipients do not know the cake size, some dictators ‘hide behind a small cake’. ► The result suggests that some subjects care about what recipients believe. We conduct an Internet dictator game experiment in collaboration with the popular German Sunday paper “Welt am Sonntag”, employing a wider and more representative subject pool than standard laboratory experiments. Recipients either knew or did not know the size of the cake distributed by the dictator. We find that, in case of incomplete information, some dictators ‘hide behind the small cake’, supporting the notion that some agents’ second-order beliefs directly enter the social utility function.
    Keywords: Dictator Game ; Psychological Games ; Incomplete Information ; Newspaper Experiment ; Business
    ISSN: 0167-2681
    E-ISSN: 1879-1751
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Psychology, 2015, Vol.49, p.84(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.03.007 Byline: Agne Kajackaite, Peter Werner Abstract: * We test if a minimum performance requirement lowers output in a real effort task. * Control costs may result mainly from reciprocity and motivation crowding out. * Control has no detrimental overall effect on performance. * Yet we find undesired effects in the dynamics of controlled agents' performance. Article History: Received 8 November 2013; Revised 12 January 2015; Accepted 23 March 2015
    Keywords: Cost Control
    ISSN: 0167-4870
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Jan, 2014, Vol.97, p.138(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2013.11.002 Byline: Axel Ockenfels, Peter Werner Abstract: acents Subjects estimate behavior and expectations of others before playing dictator games. acents Transfers respond to manipulations of the quantitative scales for the estimates. acents The effect is stronger when dictators guess the transfers expected by recipients. acents Scale manipulation can be used to affect specific beliefs and to study their causal effects on behavior. Author Affiliation: University of Cologne, Department of Economics, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Koln, Germany Article History: Received 15 March 2013; Revised 14 November 2013; Accepted 18 November 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Financial support of the German Science Foundation through the Leibniz-program and through the research unit "Design & Behavior" (FOR 1371) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank our colleagues in Cologne, in particular Thomas Mussweiler, the Editor and two anonymous referees for helpful comments and suggestions.
    ISSN: 0167-2681
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 14 April 2013, Vol.113(14)
    Description: (Ga,Mn)As nanowires were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using Mn as a growth catalyst on GaAs(001) substrates at 485 °C, i.e., at intermediate temperatures higher than ones used for the growth of (Ga,Mn)As thin films, but lower than the ordinary temperatures of Au-assisted growth of GaAs nanowires. (Ga,Mn)As nanowires obtained with typical lengths between 0.8 and 4  μ m and diameters 50–90 nm do not have defects, such as dislocations or precipitates, except for the stacking faults lying parallel to the growth direction. The investigation of magnetic and optical properties has been carried out not only for as-grown samples with nanowires but also for peeled off nanowires from the host substrate. The results obtained demonstrate that (Ga,Mn)As nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic ordering around 70 K.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron, March 18, 2013, Vol.69(11), p.2436(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2013.01.027 Byline: Erich Kleinpeter, Peter Werner, Andreas Koch Abstract: Structures,.sup.1H/.sup.13C chemical shifts, and I electron distribution/conjugation of an experimentally available and theoretically completed set of push-pull allenes Acc.sub.2 C C CDon.sub.2 (Acc=F, CHO, CF.sub.3, CN; Don=t-Bu, OMe, OEt, SMe, SEt, NCH.sub.2R) have been computed at the DFT level of theory. Both orthogonal linear and orthogonal bent structures have been obtained. In the latter case the push-pull character could be quantified by the quotient method. The.sup.13C chemical shift of the central allene carbon atom C-2 and chemical shift differences [DELTA][delta](C-1, C-2) and [DELTA][delta](C-2, C-3) of allene carbon atoms proved to be a quantitative alternative. TSNMRS of ring-closed push-pull allenes have been computed in addition and were employed to identify polar, carbene-like and carbone-like canonical structures of these molecules. Author Affiliation: Universitat Potsdam, Institut fur Chemie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Golm, Germany Article History: Received 30 November 2012; Revised 7 January 2013; Accepted 10 January 2013
    Keywords: Push–Pull Allenes ; Push–Pull Character ; 13 C NMR Spectroscopy ; Quotient Method ; Tsnmrs ; Icss ; Aromaticity;
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    E-ISSN: 14645416
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Management science : journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, 2015, Vol.61(7), pp. 1496-1513
    Description: We investigate how bonus payments affect the satisfaction and performance of managers in a large multinational company. We find that falling behind a natural reference standard for a fair bonus payment (a “reference point violation”) reduces satisfaction and subsequent performance. The effects are mitigated if information about one’s relative standing toward the reference point is withheld. A model and a laboratory experiment provide complementary insights and additional robustness checks. This paper was accepted by Uri Gneezy, behavioral economics.
    Keywords: Business;
    ISSN: 00251909
    E-ISSN: 15265501
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, January 2014, Vol.97, pp.138-142
    Description: We let subjects estimate behavior and expectations of others before they play dictator games, and only vary the quantitative scales for their estimates. Our data show that this manipulation may significantly affect economic decisions: dictators who are presented a scale with a higher midpoint transfer on average more than dictators who are presented a scale with a lower midpoint. The effect is stronger and significant in a treatment where dictators are asked to guess the average transfer expected by the recipients, compared to a treatment where they are asked to guess average transfers. Our experiment suggests that scale manipulation can be used in laboratory social interaction to systematically affect specific beliefs and to study their causal effects on behavior.
    Keywords: Altruism ; Scale Manipulation ; Norms ; Business
    ISSN: 0167-2681
    E-ISSN: 1879-1751
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, December 2014, Vol.108, pp.453-462
    Description: We report on two experiments designed to investigate the role of beliefs for ingroup favoritism. On average, dictators transfer substantially more to recipients who are publicly known to share the same group identity, compared to transfers given to recipients who are publicly known to be outgroup matches. However, there is substantially less ingroup favoritism if the dictator is informed that the recipient is unaware of the shared group membership. Moreover, dictators tend to ask less often for information about a recipient's identity if disclosure would imply that the dictator's identity is also disclosed to the recipient. The evidence supports the view that ingroup favoritism is partly belief-dependent, in addition to the notion that shared group identity changes charity preferences.
    Keywords: Group Identity ; Dictator Game ; Expectations ; Business
    ISSN: 0167-2681
    E-ISSN: 1879-1751
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of economic behavior & organization : JEBO, 2014, pp. 138-142
    ISSN: 01672681
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of economic behavior & organization : JEBO, 2012, Vol.82(1), pp. 82-85
    ISSN: 01672681
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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