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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 09 November 2012, Vol.338(6108), pp.815-8
    Description: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose function depends on intramitochondrial phospholipid synthesis and the supply of membrane lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum. How phospholipids are transported to and in-between mitochondrial membranes remained unclear. We identified Ups1, a yeast member of a conserved family of intermembrane space proteins, as a lipid transfer protein that can shuttle phosphatidic acid between mitochondrial membranes. Lipid transfer required the dynamic assembly of Ups1 with Mdm35 and allowed conversion of phosphatidic acid to cardiolipin in the inner membrane. High cardiolipin concentrations prevented membrane dissociation of Ups1, leading to its proteolysis and inhibiting transport of phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin synthesis. Thus, intramitochondrial lipid trafficking may involve a regulatory feedback mechanism that limits the accumulation of cardiolipin in mitochondria.
    Keywords: Cardiolipins -- Metabolism ; Carrier Proteins -- Metabolism ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Mitochondrial Membranes -- Metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Phosphatidic Acids -- Metabolism ; Saccharomyces Cerevisiae -- Metabolism ; Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Current Biology, 22 November 2011, Vol.21(22), pp.R922-R924
    Description: The endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are engaged in an intimate relationship: they establish extensive contacts, exchange lipids and calcium, and coordinate their activities in cell life and death. Recent research has revealed a new role for the endoplasmic reticulum in promoting mitochondrial division.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Heart, July 1, 2012, Vol.98(13), p.965(2)
    Keywords: Electrocardiography -- Usage ; Fibrosis -- Causes Of ; Genetic Testing -- Usage ; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy -- Causes Of ; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy -- Diagnosis ; Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 1355-6037
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Management Science, 2018, Vol.64(12), p.5748(21)
    Description: This paper investigates the joint effects of manager–shareholder agency conflicts and macroeconomic risk on corporate policies and firm value. I first derive the implications of a structural model of a firm with assets in place and an investment opportunity, run by a self-interested manager who captures part of the firm’s net income as private benefits. The model implies that dynamic aggregate agency costs are driven by firms in the upper half of the distribution of private benefits. Managers of those firms capture 0.8% of firms’ net income on average, thereby decreasing aggregate firm value by 1.7%. These agency costs are procyclical (1.9% in booms and 1.4% in recessions) because managerial underleverage decreases default costs particularly in recessions. Furthermore, the model can explain empirical regularities, including the joint level and cyclicality of leverage. The Internet appendix is available at https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2017.2813 . This paper was accepted by Gustavo Manso, finance.
    Keywords: Cost Benefit Analysis – Models ; Conflicts of Interest – Analysis ; Commissions (Fees) – Management ; Agency (Law) – Finance
    ISSN: 0025-1909
    E-ISSN: 15265501
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Review, 2012, Vol.119(3), pp.649-667
    Description: We present a neural network model of learning and processing the English past tense that is based on the notion that experience-dependent cortical development is a core aspect of cognitive development. During learning the model adds and removes units and connections to develop a task-specific final architecture. The model provides an integrated account of characteristic errors during learning the past tense, adult generalization to pseudoverbs, and dissociations between verbs observed after brain damage in aphasic patients. We put forward a theory of verb inflection in which a functional processing architecture develops through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and the structure of the environment, in this case, the statistical properties of verbs in the language. The outcome of this process is a structured processing system giving rise to graded dissociations between verbs that are easy and verbs that are hard to learn and process. In contrast to dual-mechanism accounts of inflection, we argue that describing dissociations as a dichotomy between regular and irregular verbs is a post hoc abstraction and is not linked to underlying processing mechanisms. We extend current single-mechanism accounts of inflection by highlighting the role of structural adaptation in development and in the formation of the adult processing system. In contrast to some single-mechanism accounts, we argue that the link between irregular inflection and verb semantics is not causal and that existing data can be explained on the basis of phonological representations alone. This work highlights the benefit of taking brain development seriously in theories of cognitive development.
    Keywords: English Past Tense ; Computational Modeling ; Neuroconstructivism ; Experience-Dependent Brain Development ; Language Development
    ISSN: 0033-295X
    E-ISSN: 1939-1471
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, January 2014, Vol.51(1), pp.63-71
    Description: Staff providing inpatient elderly and geriatric long-term care are exposed to a large number of factors that can lead to the development of burnout syndrome. Burnout is associated with an increased risk of absence from work, low work satisfaction, and an increased intention to leave. Due to the fact that the number of geriatric nursing staff is already insufficient, research on interventions aimed at reducing work-related stress in inpatient elderly care is needed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and analyse burnout intervention studies among nursing staff in the inpatient elderly and geriatric long-term care sector. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Embase, Medline and PsycNet published from 2000 to January 2012. We identified 16 intervention studies. Interventions were grouped into work-directed ( = 2), person-directed ( = 9) and combined approaches (work- and person-directed, = 5). Seven out of 16 studies observed a reduction in staff burnout. Among them are two studies with a work-directed, two with a person-directed and three with a combined approach. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (up to 1 month), while work-directed interventions and those with a combined approach were able to reduce burnout over a longer term (from 1 month to more than 1 year). In addition to staff burnout, three studies observed positive effects relating to the client outcomes. Only three out of ten Randomised Control Trials (RCT) found that interventions had a positive effect on staff burnout. Work-directed and combined interventions are able to achieve beneficial longer-term effects on staff burnout. Person-directed interventions achieve short-term results in reducing staff burnout. However, the evidence is limited.
    Keywords: Burnout ; Elderly Care Staff ; Intervention Studies ; Systematic Literature Review ; Prevention ; Turnover ; Workload ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0020-7489
    E-ISSN: 1873-491X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2011, Vol.404(4), pp.968-973
    Description: ► We compare wild-type PI3Kγ with a hybrid-PI3Kγ having only protein kinase activity. ► Both show similar phospholipid binding and subcellular distribution. ► Phospholipid liposomes influence PI3Kγ autophosphorylation dependent on their composition. ► Membrane-bound PI3Kγ does not show protein kinase activity. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) has been implicated in a variety of cellular signaling processes. It is a multifunctional enzyme with lipid and protein kinase activity that also acts as a scaffold protein. Although it is well known that membrane recruitment is essential for the phosphorylation of phosphoinositides, the cellular localization of PI3Kγ as a protein kinase remains unclear. It has merely been described that PI3Kγ protein kinase activity leading to MAPK activation seems to be restricted to a cytosolic localization. Here, we demonstrate that a hybrid-PI3Kγ having protein kinase, but not lipid kinase activity shows a similar cellular distribution with a high membrane association and comparable liposome binding behavior to wild-type PI3Kγ. Binding of PI3Kγ to liposomes mimicking the natural plasma membrane slightly stimulates autophosphorylation of PI3Kγ. However, liposomes containing an unphysiologically high amount of PI inhibit autophosphorylation of PI3Kγ. Finally, PI3Kγ bound to membrane fragments does not show autophosphorylation which is possibly due to protein–protein-interactions at the plasma membrane. This indicates that not only MAPK activation, but PI3Kγ protein kinase activity in general is localized in the cytosol.
    Keywords: Pi3kγ ; Protein Kinase Activity ; Cellular Localization ; Liposome Binding ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Neurosciences, October 2015, Vol.38(10), pp.585-597
    Description: Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly conveyed by the same sleep-associated processes. In the psychological domain, neuronal reactivation of declarative memory during slow-wave sleep (SWS) promotes the redistribution of representations initially stored in hippocampal circuitry to extra-hippocampal circuitry for long-term storage. In the immunological domain, SWS seems to favor the redistribution of antigenic memories initially held by antigen-presenting cells, to persisting T cells serving as a long-term store. Because storage capacities are limited in both systems, system consolidation presumably reduces information by abstracting ‘gist’ for long-term storage. Although responding to different environmental events, the central nervous system and the immune system share basic functions of memory. Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological and immunological memory. In the psychological domain, neuronal reactivation of declarative memory during sleep promotes the redistribution of representations initially stored in hippocampal circuitry towards the neocortex and striatum for long-term storage. In the immunological domain, sleep promotes the redistribution of antigenic memories initially held by antigen-presenting cells, to persisting T cells serving as a long-term store. In both systems, the consolidation of memory is mediated by slow-wave sleep that suppresses cholinergic and cortisol activity, and enhances proinflammatory signals. Long-term memory formation in both systems is associated with information reduction by abstracting gist memory.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-2236
    E-ISSN: 1878-108X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, March, 2013, Vol.120(3), p.266(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.09.020 Byline: Claudia Westermann, Anna Fischer, Andreas Clad Keywords: Imiquimod; Therapy outcome; Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia Abstract: To assess the efficacy of 5% imiquimod cream for treating vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Article History: Received 18 June 2012; Revised 18 September 2012; Accepted 16 November 2012
    Keywords: Imiquimod
    ISSN: 0020-7292
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Catalysis Today, 15 September 2012, Vol.191(1), pp.65-74
    Description: ► Ce acidic species on the sulfated ceria-zirconia support are the most active sites for NO -SCR by ethanol. ► Among the different organics formed under EtOH-SCR conditions, acetaldehyde, and to a lesser extent ethene, are directly involved in some pathways leading to N , some of the final steps being close to those occurring in NH -SCR. ► Ethylnitrite is a major product at low temperatures and is a secondary source for acetaldehyde. ► Supported Pd species have mostly an inhibiting effect on SCR activity and N selectivity due to the promotion of non-selective HC oxidation reactions. ► Supported Ag species, which are rather active for EtOH-SCR, deactivate to metallic silver under reaction conditions. In this study, our purpose was to investigate to what extent the deposition of some metal promoters such as Pd, Co and Ag may alter the performances of EtOH-SCR sulfated ceria-zirconia catalysts and the complex network of reactions pertaining to the reaction mechanism. In the case of Pd and Co, the characterization of metal-promoting species by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA) and DRIFTS of adsorbed CO revealed the presence of highly-dispersed cationic species coexisting with small clusters (〈 1–2 nm), whereas for Ag an unstable bulk Ag SO phase was also detected before the SCR test. Specific temperature-programmed surface reactions (TPSR) and steady-state profiles of a dozen of gaseous species monitored under 1920 ppm NO + 3020 ppm C H OH + 5% O conditions were confronted to the temperature profiles of adsorbed species obtained by DRIFTS. Under isothermal conditions, DeNO yields of 40, 37 30 and 30% at 350–400 °C were obtained respectively for the sulfated support (SCZ28) and the Co(1.03 )/SCZ28, Ag(3.00 )/SCZ28 and Pd(0.24 )/SCZ28 catalysts. TPSR data were then deeply discussed according to the nature of the metal deposited. This allowed us to reveal that the promoter effect can be sometimes either positive or negative depending on the temperature range investigated and the occurrence of deactivation processes.
    Keywords: Nitrogen Oxides ; Cexzr1−Xo2 ; Tpsr ; Drifts ; Sulfates ; Denox ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0920-5861
    E-ISSN: 1873-4308
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