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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Science, 324(5930): 1061-1064
    Description: 〈p〉Reconstructing ancient communities depends on how accurately fossil assemblages retain information about living populations. We report a high level of fidelity between modern bone assemblages and living populations based on a 40-year study of the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya. Relative abundance of 15 herbivorous species recorded in the bone assemblage accurately tracks the living populations through major changes in community composition and habitat over intervals as short as 5 years. The aggregated bone sample provides an accurate record of community structure time-averaged over four decades. These results lay the groundwork for integrating paleobiological and contemporary ecological studies across evolutionary and ecological time scales. Bone surveys also provide a useful method of assessing population changes and community structure for modern vertebrates.〈/p〉
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Biology;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: American Sociological Review, August, 2011, Vol.76(4), p.513(25)
    Description: From 1973 to 2007, private sector union membership in the United States declined from 34 to 8 percent for men and from 16 to 6 percent for women. During this period, inequality in hourly wages increased by over 40 percent. We report a decomposition, relating rising inequality to the union wage distribution's shrinking weight. We argue that unions helped institutionalize norms of equity, reducing the dispersion of nonunion wages in highly unionized regions and industries. Accounting for unions' effect on union and nonunion wages suggests that the decline of organized labor explains a fifth to a third of the growth in inequality--an effect comparable to the growing stratification of wages by education. Keywords wages, inequality, unions, labor markets, norms DOI: 10.1177/0003122411414817
    Keywords: Pay Equity -- Demographic Aspects ; Pay Equity -- Forecasts And Trends ; Labor Market -- Forecasts And Trends ; Labor Unions -- United States ; Labor Unions -- History ; Labor Unions -- Demographic Aspects ; Labor Unions -- Membership
    ISSN: 0003-1224
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Jan, 2014, Vol.651, p.302-306
    Keywords: Imprisonment -- Social Aspects ; Criminal Justice Discrimination -- Analysis ; Prison Reform -- Analysis ; Disadvantaged Persons -- Civil Rights ; Alternative Sentencing -- Analysis ; Prisoners' Rights ; Social Marginality
    ISSN: 0002-7162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Foreign Affairs, 1 May 2012, Vol.91(3), pp.88-99
    Description: Unions underwrote the affluence of U.S. workers in the last century. They ensured that manual work paid white-collar wages and gave laborers a voice in politics. But now, unions are declining, and the working and middle classes are paying the price. Reviving labor won't be easy—but doing so is critical to preserving America's economic and social health.
    Keywords: Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Socioeconomics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Business -- Business administration -- Human resources ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Political science -- Politics -- Political processes ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics ; Economics -- Microeconomics -- Economic costs and benefits ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics
    ISSN: 00157120
    E-ISSN: 23277793
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May, 2013, Vol.647, p.166-189
    Description: The U.S. prison and jail population has grown fivefold in the 40 years since the early 1970s. The aggregate consequences of the growth in the penal system are widely claimed but have not been closely studied. We survey evidence for the aggregate relationship among the incarceration rate, employment rates, single-parenthood, public opinion, and crime. Employment among very low-skilled men has declined with rising incarceration. Punitive sentiment in public opinion has also softened as imprisonment increased. Single-parenthood and crime rates, however, are not systematically related to incarceration. We conclude with a discussion of the conceptual and empirical challenges that come with assessing the aggregate effects of mass incarceration on American poverty. Keywords: incarceration, macrosciology, poverty, racial inequality
    Keywords: Poverty -- Social Aspects ; Poverty -- United States ; Imprisonment -- Social Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-7162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    In: Social Forces, 2011, Vol. 90(2), pp.375-395
    Description: Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as opportunities expanded across cohorts of black students and workers. We compare educational and income mobility for two cohorts of black and white men, the older born in the late 1940s and the younger born in the early 1960s. We find that educational mobility increased for black men, but income mobility declined for both races. Economic mobility declined despite unchanged or improved educational mobility because of increased returns to schooling and increased intergenerational income correlations, independent of schooling.
    Keywords: Income ; Income Inequality ; Males ; Civil Rights ; Students ; Racial Differentiation ; Inequality ; Cohort Analysis ; Education ; Wage Mobility ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0037-7732
    E-ISSN: 1534-7605
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Air & Space Power Journal, Fall, 2011, Vol.25(3), p.48(15)
    Description: The military must fully comprehend that maintaining global leadership and security demands a broader understanding of other cultures, thought processes, and, of course, languages. Toward that end, the author details how the Department of Defense can overcome institutional inertia and reduce the deficit in foreign language skills through practical incentives, such as implementing at each level of in-residence professional military education meaningful programs that recognize the attainment of proficiency in foreign languages. Adapted from the source document.
    Keywords: National Security -- Evaluation ; International Relations -- Military Aspects
    ISSN: 1555-385X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: American Sociological Review, August 2011, Vol.76(4), pp.513-537
    Description: From 1973 to 2007, private sector union membership in the United States declined from 34 to 8 percent for men and from 16 to 6 percent for women. During this period, inequality in hourly wages increased by over 40 percent. We report a decomposition, relating rising inequality to the union wage distribution’s shrinking weight. We argue that unions helped institutionalize norms of equity, reducing the dispersion of nonunion wages in highly unionized regions and industries. Accounting for unions’ effect on union and nonunion wages suggests that the decline of organized labor explains a fifth to a third of the growth in inequality—an effect comparable to the growing stratification of wages by education.
    Keywords: Wages ; Inequality ; Unions ; Labor Markets ; Norms ; Sociology & Social History
    ISSN: 0003-1224
    E-ISSN: 1939-8271
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 May 2016, Vol.113(20), pp.5477-85
    Description: Collecting data from hard-to-reach populations is a key challenge for research on poverty and other forms of extreme disadvantage. With data from the Boston Reentry Study (BRS), we document the extreme marginality of released prisoners and the related difficulties of study retention and analysis. Analysis of the BRS data yields three findings. First, released prisoners show high levels of "contact insecurity," correlated with social insecurity, in which residential addresses and contact information change frequently. Second, strategies for data collection are available to sustain very high rates of study participation. Third, survey nonresponse in highly marginal populations is strongly nonignorable, closely related to social and economic vulnerability. The BRS response rate of 94% over a 1-y follow-up period allows analysis of hypothetically high nonresponse rates. In this setting, nonresponse attenuates regression estimates in analyses of housing insecurity, drug use, and unemployment. These results suggest that in the analysis of very poor and disadvantaged populations, methods that maximize study participation reduce bias and yield data that can usefully supplement large-scale household or administrative data collections.
    Keywords: Hard-to-Reach Populations ; Poverty ; Sampling Bias ; Study Retention ; Survey Methods ; Bias ; Data Collection ; Prisoners
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 10
    In: Social Forces, 2015, Vol. 93(3), pp.989-1014
    Description: Previous research has shown that the transition to parenthood is a critical life-course stage. Using data from the Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and fixed-effects panel regression models, we investigate changes in men's and women's attitudes to mothering and gender divisions of labor following the transition to parenthood. Key findings indicate that attitudes become more traditional after individuals experience the birth of their first child, with both men and women becoming more likely to support mothering as women's most important role in life. We argue that these changes are due to both changes in identity and cognitive beliefs associated with the experience of becoming a parent, as well as institutional arrangements that support traditional gender divisions. More broadly, our results can be taken as strong evidence that attitudes are not stable over the life course and change with the experience of life events.
    Keywords: Attitudes ; Mothers ; Females ; Males ; Parenthood ; Birth ; Sexual Division of Labor ; Parents ; Cognition ; the Family and Socialization; Sociology of the Family, Marriage, & Divorce ; Article;
    ISSN: 0037-7732
    E-ISSN: 1534-7605
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