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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2014, Vol.9(9), pp.e108758
    Description: Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Aurora Kinase A -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Aurora Kinase B -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Azepines -- Pharmacology ; Piperazines -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Pyrimidines -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Sept 30, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases.
    Keywords: Tumor Proteins ; Apoptosis ; Phosphotransferases ; Neuroblastoma
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(11), pp.e0139663
    Description: Primary mediastinal B-Cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a recently defined entity comprising ~2-10% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Unlike most NHL subtypes, PMBL lacks recurrent gene rearrangements to serve as biomarkers or betray target genes. While druggable, late chemotherapeutic complications warrant the search for new targets and models. Well characterized tumor cell lines provide unlimited material to serve as preclinical resources for verifiable analyses directed at the discovery of new biomarkers and pathological targets using high throughput microarray technologies. The same cells may then be used to seek intelligent therapies directed at clinically validated targets. Four cell lines have emerged as potential PMBL models: FARAGE, KARPAS-1106P, MEDB-1 and U-2940. Transcriptionally, PMBL cell lines cluster near c(lassical)-HL and B-NHL examples showing they are related but separate entities. Here we document genomic alterations therein, by cytogenetics and high density oligonucleotide/SNP microarrays and parse their impact by integrated global expression profiling. PMBL cell lines were distinguished by moderate chromosome rearrangement levels undercutting cHL, while lacking oncogene translocations seen in B-NHL. In total 61 deletions were shared by two or more cell lines, together with 12 amplifications (≥4x) and 72 homozygous regions. Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling showed deletions to be the most important class of chromosome rearrangement. Lesions were mapped to several loci associated with PMBL, e.g. 2p15 (REL/COMMD1), 9p24 (JAK2, CD274), 16p13 (SOCS1, LITAF, CIITA); plus new or tenuously associated loci: 2p16 (MSH6), 6q23 (TNFAIP3), 9p22 (CDKN2A/B), 20p12 (PTPN1). Discrete homozygous regions sometimes substituted focal deletions accompanied by gene silencing implying a role for epigenetic or mutational inactivation. Genomic amplifications increasing gene expression or gene-activating rearrangements were respectively rare or absent. Our findings highlight biallelic deletions as a major class of chromosomal lesion in PMBL cell lines, while endorsing the latter as preclinical models for hunting and testing new biomarkers and actionable targets.
    Keywords: Genome, Human ; Lymphoma, B-Cell -- Genetics ; Mediastinal Neoplasms -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International journal of molecular sciences, 11 August 2014, Vol.15(8), pp.13932-7
    Description: Mutations in human DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are commonly associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). MLH1 protein heterodimerizes with PMS2, PMS1, and MLH3 to form MutLα, MutLβ, and MutLγ, respectively. We reported recently stable expression of GFP-linked MLH3 in human cell lines. Monitoring these cell lines during the cell cycle using live cell imaging combined with confocal microscopy, we detected accumulation of MLH3 at the centrosomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed high mobility and fast exchange rates at the centrosomes as it has been reported for other DNA repair proteins. MLH3 may have a role in combination with other repair proteins in the control of centrosome numbers.
    Keywords: Carrier Proteins -- Metabolism ; Centrosome -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1422-0067
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC research notes, 10 October 2014, Vol.7, pp.710
    Description: Various kinase inhibitors are known to be ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrates and resistance acquisition to kinase inhibitors has been associated to increased ABC transporter expression. Here, we investigated the role of the ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 during melanoma cell resistance acquisition to the V600-mutant BRAF inhibitors PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and PLX4720. PLX4032 had previously been shown to interfere with ABCB1 and ABCG2. PLX4720 had been demonstrated to interact with ABCB1 but to a lower extent than PLX4032. PLX4032 and PLX4720 affected ABCC1- and ABCG2-mediated drug transport in a similar fashion. In a panel of 16 V600E BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines consisting of four parental cell lines and their sub-lines with acquired resistance to PLX4032, PLX4720, vincristine (cytotoxic ABCB1 and ABCC1 substrate), or mitoxantrone (cytotoxic ABCG2 substrate), we detected enhanced ABC transporter expression in 4/4 cytotoxic ABC transporter substrate-resistant, 3/4 PLX4720-resistant, and 1/4 PLX4032-resistant melanoma cell lines. PLX4032 has the potential to induce ABC transporter expression but this potential is lower than that of PLX4720 or cytotoxic ABC transporter substrates. Since ABC transporters confer multi-drug resistance, this is of relevance for the design of next-line therapies.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Multiple ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Drug Effects ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Indoles -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-Raf -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Sulfonamides -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2019, Vol.14(5), pp.e0216898
    Description: NKL homeobox genes encode developmental transcription factors regulating basic processes in cell differentiation. According to their physiological expression pattern in early hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, particular members of this homeobox gene subclass constitute an NKL-code. B-cell specific NKL-code genes generate a regulatory network and their deregulation is implicated in B-cell lymphomagenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B-cells and influences the activity of signalling pathways including JAK/STAT and several genes encoding developmental regulators. Therefore, EBV-infection impacts the pathogenesis and the outcome of B-cell malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we isolated EBV-positive and EBV-negative subclones from the DLBCL derived cell line DOHH-2. These subclones served as models to investigate the role of EBV in deregulation of the B-cell specific NKL-code members HHEX, HLX, MSX1 and NKX6-3. We showed that the EBV-encoded factors LMP1 and LMP2A activated the expression of HLX via STAT3. HLX in turn repressed NKX6-3, SPIB and IL4R which normally mediate plasma cell differentiation. In addition, HLX repressed the pro-apoptotic factor BCL2L11/BIM and hence supported cell survival. Thus, EBV aberrantly activated HLX in DLBCL, thereby disturbing both B-cell differentiation and apoptosis. The results of our study appreciate the pathogenic role of EBV in NKL homeobox gene deregulation and B-cell malignancies.
    Keywords: Sciences (General);
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, July 2013, Vol.49(11), pp.2587-2595
    Description: Microsatellite instability (MSI) resulting from loss of functional DNA mismatch repair was recently found in various haematological disorders. In coding sequences, MSI leads to frameshift mutations (FSMs) and the production of C-terminally altered proteins which are foreign to the immune system. Here, we wondered whether these frame-shifted peptide (FSP) sequences represent tumour-specific antigens also for MSI leukaemia and lymphomas (L/L). A total of 33 coding region microsatellites were examined in MSI L/L cell lines for the presence of FSMs. Thereafter, recognition of MSI cells by established FSP-specific CD8 T cell lines was quantified using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. In each experiment, MSI L/L cell lines and T2 targets exogenously loaded with the cognate peptide (=internal control) were employed. Supplementary, lytic activity towards tumour cells was analysed by standard chromium release assay ( Cr). Mutational profiling of 33 coding microsatellite loci in nine MSI L/L cell lines revealed instability in at least nine microsatellites. In each cell line, a distinct mutational profile was observed. Only three of the 33 loci were stable. FSP-specific and human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted T cells specifically recognised MSI L/L cells endogenously expressing TGFβRII (-1), Caspase 5 (-1) and MSH3 (-1) in ELISpot assays. Moreover, specific killing of Caspase 5 (-1) and MSH3 (-1) expressing L/L cell lines was achieved in functional cytotoxicity assays. Data presented here expand the importance of FSPs as shared and general tumour-specific antigens. Consequently, they open new avenues for specific immunotherapies not only for solid but also for MSI haematological malignancies.
    Keywords: Frameshift Antigens ; Microsatellite Instability ; Haematological Malignancies ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 8
    In: Scientific Reports, 2015, Vol.5
    Description: Flubendazole was shown to exert anti-leukaemia and anti-myeloma activity through inhibition of microtubule function. Here, flubendazole was tested for its effects on the viability of in total 461 cancer cell lines. Neuroblastoma was identified as highly flubendazole-sensitive cancer entity in a screen of 321 cell lines from 26 cancer entities. Flubendazole also reduced the viability of five primary neuroblastoma samples in nanomolar concentrations thought to be achievable in humans and inhibited vessel formation and neuroblastoma tumour growth in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Resistance acquisition is a major problem in high-risk neuroblastoma. 119 cell lines from a panel of 140 neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired resistance to various anti-cancer drugs were sensitive to flubendazole in nanomolar concentrations. Tubulin-binding agent-resistant cell lines displayed the highest flubendazole IC50 and IC90 values but differences between drug classes did not reach statistical significance. Flubendazole induced p53-mediated apoptosis. The siRNA-mediated depletion of the p53 targets p21, BAX, or PUMA reduced the neuroblastoma cell sensitivity to flubendazole with PUMA depletion resulting in the most pronounced effects. The MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 increased flubendazole efficacy while RNAi-mediated p53-depletion reduced its activity. In conclusion, flubendazole represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cells.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 20452322
    E-ISSN: 20452322
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Blood cancer journal, 10 August 2018, Vol.8(8), pp.77
    Keywords: Alternative Splicing ; Lymphoma, B-Cell -- Genetics ; RNA Splicing Factors -- Genetics ; Repressor Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: Blood Cancer Journal
    E-ISSN: 2044-5385
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01 March 2013, Vol.132(5), pp.1232-1234
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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