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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2017, Vol. 215(12), pp.1888-1892
    Description: Chlamydia trachomatis ( Ct ) infection causes significant morbidity. In vitro studies demonstrate that Ct growth inhibition occurs by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)–mediated depletion of intracellular tryptophan, and some Ct strains utilize extracellular indole to restore tryptophan levels. Whether tryptophan levels are associated with Ct infection clearance in humans remains unknown. We evaluated tryptophan, indole, and IFN-γ levels in cervicovaginal lavages from women with either naturally cleared or persisting Ct infection. Women who cleared infection had significantly lower tryptophan levels and trended toward lower IFN-γ levels compared to women with persisting infection. Due to its volatility, indole was not measurable in either group.
    Keywords: Tryptophan ; Interferon - Gamma ; Indole ; Clearance ; Chlamydia.
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2011, Vol.6(7), p.e21977
    Description: Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis) proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br) compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p〈0.05) difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20), or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9). These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse) yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(12), p.e0189756
    Description: Since dietary polyphenols can have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of cancer, we tested the hypothesis that breast cancer patients' intestinal microbiota is modulated by genistein (GE), an isoflavone found in soy, and that microbial alterations may offset the side effects brought about by chemotherapy. We demonstrated successful humanization of germ-free mice by transplanting fecal samples from breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy. Mice were then grouped based on chemotherapy status and GE or control diet. We did not find any significant differences between pre-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy bacterial composition and abundances. Germ-free mice on a GE diet showed differences in microbial composition as compared to mice on control diet. Four weeks after introduction of the customized GE diet, there was distinct clustering of GE-fed mice as compared to the control-fed group. In the gut microbiome of GE-treated humanized mice, there was an increase in abundance of genera Lactococcus and Eubacterium. Phylum Verrucomicrobia showed statistically significant (p = 0.02) differences in abundances between the GE-fed and control-fed groups. There was an increase in bacteria belonging to family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in GE-fed mice. Marked changes were observed in GE catabolism in mice humanized with fecal material from two of three patients' post-chemotherapy with complete disappearance of 4-ethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenol) propionic acid conjugates. The post-tumor samples did not show any distinct clustering of the gut microbiota between the two diet groups. There was an increase in latency of about 25% for tumor growth of the humanized mice that were on a GE diet as compared to humanized mice on a control diet. The average tumor size for the GE group was significantly decreased compared to the non-GE group. Collectively, our results suggest that the intestinal microbiota becomes altered with a GE diet before induction of tumor. Our findings indicate that GE modulates the microbiome in humanized mice that may contribute to its effects on increasing the latency of breast tumor and reducing tumor growth.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), May 2010, Vol.18(5), pp.995-9
    Description: The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.
    Keywords: Dietary Supplements ; Mannans ; Body Composition -- Drug Effects ; Weight Gain -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 19307381
    E-ISSN: 1930-739X
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 2015, Vol.74(6), pp.568-586
    Description: ABSTRACT: Neurofibromin, the tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, potentially suppresses the activation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. However, it is not known whether these classic Ras proteins are hyperactivated in NF1-null nerve sheath tumors, how they contribute to tumorigenesis, and what signaling pathways mediate their effects. Here we show that H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras are coexpressed with their activators (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) in neurofibromin-null malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells, and that all 3 Ras proteins are activated. Dominant negative (DN) H-Ras, a pan-inhibitor of the classic Ras family, inhibited MPNST proliferation and survival, but not migration. However, NF1-null MPNST cells were variably dependent on individual Ras proteins. In some lines, ablation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and/or K-Ras inhibited mitogenesis. In others, ablation of a single Ras protein had no effect on proliferation; in these lines, ablation of a single Ras protein resulted in compensatory increases in the activation and/or expression of other Ras proteins. Using mass spectrometry–based phosphoproteomics, we identified 7 signaling networks affecting morphology, proliferation, and survival that are regulated by DN H-Ras. Thus, neurofibromin loss activates multiple classic Ras proteins that promote proliferation and survival by regulating several distinct signaling cascades.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0022-3069
    E-ISSN: 15546578
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Acta Crystallographica. Section D. Structural Biology, 30 June 2017, Vol.73(7)
    Description: Gram-negative bacteria use siderophores, outer membrane receptors, inner membrane transporters and substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) to transport transition metals through the periplasm. The SBPs share a similar protein fold that has undergone significant structural evolution to communicate with a variety of differentially regulated transporters in the cell. InYersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, YfeA (YPO2439, y1897), an SBP, is important for full virulence during mammalian infection. To better understand the role of YfeA in infection, crystal structures were determined under several environmental conditions with respect to transition-metal levels. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and anomalous X-ray scattering data show that YfeA is polyspecific and can alter its substrate specificity. In minimal-media experiments, YfeA crystals grown after iron supplementation showed a threefold increase in iron fluorescence emission over the iron fluorescence emission from YfeA crystals grown from nutrient-rich conditions, and YfeA crystals grown after manganese supplementation during overexpression showed a fivefold increase in manganese fluorescence emission over the manganese fluorescence emission from YfeA crystals grown from nutrient-rich conditions. In all experiments, the YfeA crystals produced the strongest fluorescence emission from zinc and could not be manipulated otherwise. Additionally, this report documents the discovery of a novel surface metal-binding site that prefers to chelate zinc but can also bind manganese. Flexibility across YfeA crystal forms in three loops and a helix near the buried metal-binding site suggest that a structural rearrangement is required for metal loading and unloading.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic, Physical, And Analytical Chemistry ; Basic Biological Sciences ; Engineering
    ISSN: 2059-7983
    ISSN: 09074449
    E-ISSN: 2059-7983
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Oncotarget, 15 March 2014, Vol.5(5), pp.1382-9
    Description: Blood borne metastatic tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells constitutes a critical rate-limiting step in hematogenous cancer metastasis. Interactions between cancer associated carbohydrate Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag) and endothelium-expressed galectin-3 (Gal-3) have been identified as the leading molecular mechanism initiating tumor/endothelial cell adhesion in several types of cancer. However, it is unknown how these rather weak and transient carbohydrate/lectin mediated interactions are stabilized. Here, using Western blot and LC tandem mass spectrometry analyses of pull-downs utilizing TF-Ag loaded gold nanoparticles, we identified Gal-3, endothelial integrin α3β1, Src kinase, as well as 5 additional molecules mapping onto focal adhesion pathway as parts of the macromolecular complexes formed at the endothelial cell membranes downstream of TF-Ag/Gal-3 interactions. In a modified parallel flow chamber assay, inhibiting α3β1 integrin greatly reduced the strength of tumor/endothelial cell interactions without affecting the initial cancer cell adhesion. Further, the macromolecular complex induced by TF-Ag/Gal-3/α3β1 interactions activates Src kinase, p38, and ERK1/2, pathways in endothelial cells in a time- and α3β1-dependent manner. We conclude that, following the initial metastatic cell attachment to endothelial cells mediated by TF-Ag/Gal-3 interactions, endothelial integrin α3β1 stabilizes tumor/endothelial cell adhesion and induces the formation of macromolecular signaling complex activating several major signaling pathways in endothelial cells.
    Keywords: MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate -- Metabolism ; Cell Adhesion -- Physiology ; Endothelial Cells -- Physiology ; Galectin 3 -- Metabolism ; Integrin Alpha3beta1 -- Metabolism ; Neoplasm Metastasis -- Physiopathology ; Prostatic Neoplasms -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1949-2553
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  • 8
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: The tumor suppressor protein Merlin is proteasomally degraded in breast cancer. We undertook an untargeted metabolomics approach to discern the global metabolomics profile impacted by Merlin in breast cancer cells. We discerned specific changes in glutathione metabolites that uncovered novel facets of Merlin in impacting the cancer cell metabolome. Concordantly, Merlin loss increased oxidative stress causing aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling. Abrogation of GLI-mediated transcription activity compromised the aggressive phenotype of Merlin-deficient cells indicating a clear dependence of cells on Hedgehog signaling. In breast tumor tissues, GLI1 expression enhanced tissue identification and discriminatory power of Merlin, cumulatively presenting a powerful substantiation of the relationship between these two proteins. We have uncovered, for the first time, details of the tumor cell metabolomic portrait modulated by Merlin, leading to activation of Hedgehog signaling. Importantly, inhibition of Hedgehog signaling offers an avenue to target the vulnerability of tumor cells with loss of Merlin.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, February 2016, Vol.91, pp.143-153
    Description: Platelet aggregation is an essential response to tissue injury and is associated with activation of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase, and is also a highly energetic process. The two central energetic pathways in the cell, glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, are susceptible to damage by reactive lipid species. Interestingly, how platelet metabolism is affected by the oxidative stress associated with aggregation is largely unexplored. To address this issue, we examined the response of human platelets to 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid species which is generated during thrombus formation and during oxidative stress. Elevated plasma 4-HNE has been associated with renal failure, septic shock and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. In this study, we found that 4-HNE decreased thrombin stimulated platelet aggregation by approximately 60%. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated that underlying our previous observation of a stimulation of platelet energetics by thrombin glycolysis and TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) metabolites were increased. Next, we assessed the effect of both 4-HNE and alkyne HNE (A-HNE) on bioenergetics and targeted metabolomics, and found a stimulatory effect on glycolysis, associated with inhibition of bioenergetic parameters. In the presence of HNE and thrombin glycolysis was further stimulated but the levels of the TCA metabolites were markedly suppressed. Identification of proteins modified by A-HNE followed by click chemistry and mass spectrometry revealed essential targets in platelet activation including proteins involved in metabolism, adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, aggregation, vesicular transport, protein folding, antioxidant proteins, and small GTPases. In summary, the biological effects of 4-HNE can be more effectively explained in platelets by the integrated effects of the modification of an electrophile responsive proteome rather than the isolated effects of candidate proteins.
    Keywords: Platelet ; Bioenergetics ; 4-Hydroxynonenal ; Aggregation ; Click Chemistry ; Metabolomics ; Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0891-5849
    E-ISSN: 1873-4596
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, August 2019, Vol.61(2), pp.162-173
    Description: Cigarette smoking is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis. Acquired ion transport abnormalities, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction, caused by cigarette smoking have been proposed as potential mechanisms for mucus obstruction in chronic bronchitis. Although e-cigarette use is popular and perceived to be safe, whether it harms the airways via mechanisms altering ion transport remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to determine if e-cigarette vapor, like cigarette smoke, has the potential to induce acquired CFTR dysfunction, and to what degree. Electrophysiological methods demonstrated reduced chloride transport caused by vaporized e-cigarette liquid or vegetable glycerin at various exposures (30 min, 57.2% and 14.4% respectively, vs. control;  〈 0.0001), but not by unvaporized liquid (60 min, 17.6% vs. untreated), indicating that thermal degradation of these products is required to induce the observed defects. We also observed reduced ATP-dependent responses (-10.8 ± 3.0 vs. -18.8 ± 5.1 μA/cm control) and epithelial sodium channel activity (95.8% reduction) in primary human bronchial epithelial cells after 5 minutes, suggesting that exposures dramatically inhibit epithelial ion transport beyond CFTR, even without diminished transepithelial resistance or cytotoxicity. Vaporizing e-cigarette liquid produced reactive aldehydes, including acrolein (shown to induce acquired CFTR dysfunction), as quantified by mass spectrometry, demonstrating that respiratory toxicants in cigarette smoke can also be found in e-cigarette vapor (30 min air, 224.5 ± 15.99; unvaporized liquid, 284.8 ± 35.03; vapor, 54,468 ± 3,908 ng/ml;  〈 0.0001). E-cigarettes can induce ion channel dysfunction in airway epithelial cells, partly through acrolein production. These findings indicate a heretofore unknown toxicity of e-cigarette use known to be associated with chronic bronchitis onset and progression, as well as with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity.
    Keywords: Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Dysfunction ; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ; E-Cigarette ; Ion Transport
    E-ISSN: 1535-4989
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