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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nurse Education Today, December 2015, Vol.35(12), pp.1192-1198
    Description: Participatory web-based platforms, including social media, have been recognised as valuable learning tools in healthcare education for over a decade. Use of these platforms is now widespread in tertiary education. It is less widely accepted as a tool for continuing professional education and development at the industry level. This study explores perspectives of senior stakeholders in the nursing home sector to explore perceived benefits, barriers and risks for use in professional education. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of ‘high level’ clinical and executive staff from a cross section of nursing home stakeholder organisations. Established printed educational material (PEM) was used as a case study for adaptation to web-based social applications. Questions were designed to gather information about the interviewee's views on the potential to apply PEM to programs such as blogs, Twitter and YouTube to deliver education and aid communication in the sector. Twelve participants from eleven stakeholder organisations took part in the study. Most participants were cautious about the use of social media programs in continuing professional education. Participants described the benefits (contemporary information, delivered rapidly, varying formats) and barriers (credibility of information, potential misinterpretation, sector demographics, time constraints) to uptake of these programs. The majority of participants preferred formal e-learning programs to web-based social media applications. Reservations expressed about the use of social media, such as accuracy, legal and privacy risks to the organisation reflected those previously expressed by the broader medical community.
    Keywords: Nursing Home ; Medical Staff/Education ; Nursing Staff/Education ; Social Media ; Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0260-6917
    E-ISSN: 1532-2793
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  • 2
    In: Age and Ageing, 2015, Vol. 44(3), pp.356-364
    Description: Background: resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) is an understudied form of elder abuse in nursing homes. Objective: the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published research on the frequency, nature, contributing factors and outcomes of RRA in nursing homes. Methods: in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, this review examined all original, peer-reviewed research published in English, French, German, Italian or Spanish between 1st January 1949 and 31st December 2013 describing incidents of RRA in nursing homes. The following information was extracted for analysis: study and population characteristics; main findings (including prevalence, predisposing factors, triggers, nature of incidents, outcomes and interventions). Results: eighteen studies were identified, 12 quantitative and 6 qualitative. The frequency of RRA ranged from 1 to 122 incidents, with insufficient information across the studies to calculate prevalence. RRA commonly occurred between exhibitors with higher levels of cognitive awareness and physical functionality and a history of aggressive behaviours, and female targets who were cognitively impaired with a history of behavioural issues including wandering. RRA most commonly took place in the afternoon in communal settings, was often triggered by communication issues and invasion of space, or was unprovoked. Limited information exists on organisational factors contributing to RRA and the outcomes for targets of aggression. Conclusions: we must continue to grow our knowledge base on the nature and circumstances of RRA to prevent harm to an increasing vulnerable population of nursing home residents and ensure a safe working environment for staff.
    Keywords: Nursing Home ; Aggression ; Resident - To - Resident ; Death ; Physical Injury ; Older People ; Systematic Review
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 3
    In: Age and Ageing, 2018, Vol. 47(2), pp.226-233
    Description: Abstract Background the demand for residential respite care for older persons is high yet little is known about the occurrence of harm, including death in this care setting. Objective to compare the prevalence and nature of deaths among residential respite to permanent nursing home residents. Design retrospective cohort study. Setting australian accredited nursing homes between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2013. Subjects respite and permanent residents of Australian accredited nursing homes, whose deaths were investigated by Australian coroners. Methods prevalence of deaths of nursing home residents were calculated using routinely generated coronial data stored in the National Coronial Information System. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to examine residency (respite or permanent) by cause of death. Results of the 21,672 residents who died during the study period, 172 (0.8%) were in respite care. The majority of deaths were due to natural causes. A lower proportion occurred in respite (n = 119, 69.2%) than permanent (n = 18,264, 84.9%) residents. Falls-related deaths in respite as a proportion (n = 41, 23.8%) was almost double that in permanent care (n = 2,638, 12.3%). Deaths from other injury-related causes (such as suicide and choking) were significantly more likely in respite residents (OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.6; P = 0.026). Conclusions this is the first national cohort study examining mortality among respite residents. It established that premature, injury-related deaths do occur during respite care. This is the first step towards better understanding and reducing the risk of harm in respite care.
    Keywords: Respite ; Mortality ; Transition ; Transfer ; Adverse Events ; Older People
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(2), p.e0170651
    Description: BACKGROUND:Adherence to medication is vital for disease management while simultaneously reducing healthcare expenditure. Older persons with cognitive impairment (CI) are at risk for non-adherence as cognitive processes are needed to manage medications. This systematic review focuses on the relationship between medication non-adherence and specific cognitive domains in persons with CI, and explores determinants of medication non-adherence. When available, relationships and factors are compared with cognitively intact populations. METHODS:A seven database systematic search of studies published between 1 January 1949-31 December 2015 examining medication non-adherence in community dwelling persons with CI or dementia was conducted. Articles reporting medication non-adherence in people with CI or dementia in the community, with or without caregiver supports were eligible for inclusion. Papers reporting adherence to treatments in cognitively intact populations, populations from hospital or institutional settings, for non-prescribed medication or those describing dementia as a factor predicting medication non-adherence were excluded. Data on study and population characteristics, research design, data sources and analysis, specific cognitive domains, non-adherence prevalence, measurement of adherence, salient findings, factors associated with adherence and strategies to improve medication adherence were extracted. Study limitations included inconsistencies between data sources and definitions, resulting in a loss of fidelity in the value and comprehensiveness of data, as well as exclusion of non-pharmacological treatments and regimens. FINDINGS:Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Adherence among CI subjects ranged from 10.7%-38% with better rates of adherence in non-CI individuals. Medication non-adherence definitions varied considerably. New-learning, memory and executive functioning were associated with improved adherence and formed the focus of most studies. Multiple factors were identified as modulators of non-adherence. CONCLUSION:This review highlights a gap in knowledge on how specific cognitive domains contribute to medication non-adherence amongst CI populations, and demonstrates the current focus is limited to two domains: memory and executive functioning.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Age and Ageing, 2015, Vol.44(3), p.356(9)
    Keywords: Nursing Homes – Management ; Elderly – Health Aspects ; Aggressiveness (Psychology) – Behavior ; Caregivers – Practice
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    In: International Psychogeriatrics, 2015, Vol.27(3), pp.471-479
    Description: ABSTRACT Background: Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers’ mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers’ self-reported capacity to cope with their role. Methods: A pre–post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Results: Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. Conclusion: An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.
    Keywords: Technology; Music; Dementia; Family Caregiver; Burden
    ISSN: 1041-6102
    E-ISSN: 1741-203X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Resuscitation, January 2016, Vol.98, pp.118-124
    Description: The prevalence of dementia is growing with an ageing population. Most persons with dementia die of acute illness and many are hospitalised at the end of life. In the acute hospital setting, limitation of care orders (LCOs) such as Do Not Attempt CPR and Physician Orders For Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST), appear to be underused in patients with dementia. These patients receive the same aggressive life-prolonging therapies as any other patient, despite drastically higher mortality. However, limitation of care orders in patients with dementia is not addressed by current guidelines or policies. Systems and processes for obtaining and documenting LCO need improvement at the individual, organisational and societal level. The issue is controversial amongst the public and poorly understood by clinicians. Balanced and empathetic decision-making requires an individualised approach and recognition of the complexities (legal, ethical and clinical) of this issue. We examine the domains of: (a) treatment effectiveness, (b) burden of care and quality of life and (c) patient autonomy and capacity.
    Keywords: Limitations of Care ; Dnacpr ; Dementia ; Acute Hospital ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0300-9572
    E-ISSN: 1873-1570
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The, Vol. 36, No. 2, Dec 2018 - Feb 2019: 14-22
    Description: Objective: Nurses working in aged care facilities need to be adequately prepared to manage the increasingly complex care needs of older people. This paper reports on the views of nurses on the barriers and enablers to conducting nursing assessments with older people in residential aged care, six weeks after attending a four day education and training workshop on this topic. Design: Descriptive evaluation. Setting: Data were collected in a range of venues in which the education was delivered. Subjects: Registered (RNs) and enrolled (ENs) nurses (n= 345) working in residential aged care facilities in Victoria, Australia. Findings: Fourteen barriers and eight enablers, which affect the capacity of nurses to conduct assessments with older people, were identified. The most common cited barriers included lack of time (78%), residents' poor state of health (41%) and the absence of equipment (33%). Common enablers were organisational support (38%); staff education and training (29%); having the appropriate equipment (22%); positive staff attitudes (17%) and the resident's condition and cooperation (16%). Conclusion: Nursing assessments are vital to the delivery of quality and evidence based aged care. The issues identified provide aged care services and managers with a basis for ensuring that nurses have the necessary preparation, training and ongoing support to perform the appropriate and required assessments to provide the best possible care.
    Keywords: Nursing Homes--Evaluation ; Nursing Assessment ; Nursing Home Care--Quality Control ; Older People--Care
    ISSN: 0813-0531
    E-ISSN: 14474328
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Australian Health Review, 2018, Vol.42(6), p.680-688
    Description: Objective Resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes is a matter of serious and profound concern, yet action to eliminate or mitigate RRA is hampered by a paucity of research. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholders' knowledge and perceptions of RRA in Australian nursing homes. Methods A qualitative cross-sectional study design was used, and semistructured telephone interviews were conducted. Participants were purposively and conveniently sampled with replacement from a range of aged care, healthcare and legal professional bodies, as well as advocacy organisations. The interview contained 12 closed-ended questions and six open-ended questions about participants' knowledge, experiences, perceptions and attitudes to RRA. Participant characteristics and responses to closed-ended questions were aggregated and proportions calculated, and thematic analysis was conducted by two independent researchers using a directed content approach. Results Fifteen participants (11 females; 73.3%) in senior management positions were interviewed. All were familiar with the concept of RRA and just over half (n=8; 53.3%) had witnessed an incident. Major themes included the nature and causes of RRA and attitudes and responses to RRA. Potential causes of RRA included maladaptation to nursing home life, transfer of pre-existing issues into the nursing home environment, physical environment and staffing-related issues. RRA was commonly viewed by participants as dangerous and unpredictable or, conversely, as expected behaviour in a nursing home setting. A person-centred care approach was considered most effective for managing and responding to RRA. Conclusion The research demonstrates that understanding perceptions of RRA among key stakeholders is critical to identifying the nature and scope of the problem and to developing and implementing appropriate prevention strategies. What is known about the topic? RRA is common in nursing homes, with potentially fatal consequences for residents involved, and has serious implications for nursing home staff, managers, providers, and regulators. Despite this, the prevalence, impact, and prevention of RRA remains under-recognised and under-researched in Australia. What does this paper add? This is the first Australian study to produce qualitative findings on the knowledge and perceptions of RRA in nursing homes among key stakeholders. This paper reports on the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in senior management and policy roles in aged care and related fields in relation to four themes: nature; causes; attitudes; and responses to RRA. Our findings highlight the complex and multifactorial nature of RRA. What are the implications for practitioners? A movement towards person-centred care that promotes understanding of individual care needs is favoured as an approach to reducing RRA. Increased reporting of both minor and major incidents of RRA will help to identify patterns and inform appropriate responses. However, a cultural shift is first required to recognise RRA as a manageable and preventable health care and adult safeguarding issue.
    Keywords: behaviour management; dementia care; nursing homes; older adults.
    ISSN: 0156-5788
    E-ISSN: 1449-8944
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Australian Health Review, 2016, Vol.41(5), p.519-526
    Description: Objective Limitation of Medical Treatment (LMT) forms are an essential element of end-of-life care. Decision making around LMT is complex and often involves patients with dementia. Despite the complexity, junior doctors frequently play a central role in completing LMT forms. The present study sought perspectives from a range of stakeholders (hospital clinicians, medical education personnel, legal and advocacy staff) about junior doctors' roles in completing LMT forms in general and for patients with dementia. Methods Qualitative data were gathered in semi-structured interviews (SSI) and theoretical concepts were explored in roundtable discussion (RD). Participants were recruited through purposive and convenience sampling drawing on healthcare and legal personnel employed in the public hospital and aged care systems, selected from major metropolitan hospitals, healthcare and legal professional bodies and advocacy organisations in Victoria, Australia. The contents of the SSIs and RD were subject to thematic analysis using a framework approach. Data were indexed according to the topics established in the study aim; categories were systematically scrutinised, from which key themes were distilled. Results Stakeholders reported that completing LMT forms was difficult for junior doctors because of a lack of medical and legal knowledge, as well as clinical inexperience and inadequate training. Healthcare organisations (HCOs) either lacked policies about the role of junior doctors or had practices that were discordant with policy. In this process, there were substantial gaps pertaining to patients with dementia. Recommendations made by the study participants included the provision of supervised clinical exposure and additional training for junior doctors, strengthening HCO policies and explicit consideration of the needs of patients with dementia. Conclusions LMT forms should be designed for clarity and consistency across HCOs. Enhancing patient care requires appropriate and sensitive completion of LMT. Relevant HCO policy and clinical practice changes are discussed herein, and recommendations are made for junior doctors in this arena, specifically in the context of patients with dementia. What is known about the topic? Junior doctors continue to play a central role in LMT orders, a highly complex decision-making task that they are poorly prepared to complete. LMT decision making in Australia's aging population and for people with dementia is especially challenging. What does this paper add? A broad range of stakeholders, including hospital clinicians, medical education personnel and legal and advocacy staff, identified ongoing substantial gaps in education and training of junior doctors (despite what is already known in the literature). Furthermore, LMT decision making for patients with dementia is not explicitly considered in policy of practice. What are the implications for practitioners? Current policy and practice are not at the desired level to deliver appropriate end-of-life care with regard to LMT orders, especially for patients with dementia. Greater involvement of executives and senior clinicians is required to improve both practice at the bed side and the training and support of junior doctors, as well as creating more robust policy.
    Keywords: Decision Making ; Dementia ; Medical Staff, Hospital ; Terminal Care -- Legislation & Jurisprudence ; Withholding Treatment -- Legislation & Jurisprudence;
    ISSN: 0156-5788
    E-ISSN: 1449-8944
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