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  • 1
    Language: German
    Description: Für die Anwendung von Züchtungsmethoden, wie Art- und Gattungskreuzungen oder Polyploidisierung, für neue Zierpflanzen fehlen in vielen Fällen grundlegende Informationen über die jeweiligen Gattungen und Arten. Am Beispiel der Mittagsblumengewächse (Aizoaceae), die aufgrund ihrer intensiven, strahlenden Blütenfarben und ihrer Trockentoleranz Kandidaten für neue Zierpflanzen darstellen, werden Untersuchungen zur Blütenentwicklung, zur Bestimmung von DNA-Gehalten sowie zu Kreuzungskompatibilitäten vorgestellt. Für keinen der untersuchten Genotypen der Gattungen Cephalophyllum, Lampranthus und Delosperma wurde ein obligater photoperiodischer Einfluss auf die Blühinduktion festgestellt, jedoch waren unterschiedliche Reaktionen auf die Tagesmitteltemperatur für die Vertreter der drei Gattungen nachweisbar. Kreuzungsversuche innerhalb und zwischen den Gattungen Lampranthus und Delosperma zeigten späte präzygotische Hybridisierungsbarrieren bei einigen interspezifischen und intergenerischen Kombinationen. Deutlich häufiger waren postzygotische Kreuzungsbarrieren, die sich in verzögerter und anormaler Entwicklung der zygotischen Embryonen und in Chlorophylldefekten sowie geringer Vitalität der Nachkommen äußerten. Die Überwindung der postzygotischen Barrieren durch In-vitro-Aussaat und Embryo Rescue-Ansätze resultierte in wenigen, durch AFLP-Marker nachgewiesenen intra- und intergenerischen Hybriden. Pollenuntersuchungen mit dem Ziel der Identifikation von unreduzierten Gameten zeigten, dass durchflusszytometrische Analysen zu Fehlinterpretationen führen können, weil zusammenhängende Spermakerne und vollständige „male germ units“ (MGUs) zu Peaks an der 2C- bzw. 3C-Position führen. Pollenkerne waren aber gut zur Abschätzung der DNA-Gehalte nutzbar. Bei Delosperma Genotypen...
    Keywords: Blüteninduktion; Durchflusszytometrie; Embryo Rescue; Endoreduplikation; Interspezifische Hybridisierung; Polyploidisierung; Unreduzierte Gameten
    ISSN: 18689892
    E-ISSN: 2199921X
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.366(1), pp.617-631
    Description: Background and aims Replant problems or soil sickness are known phenomena but still unsolved. The aims of this study were (i) to set up a test system for detecting replant problems using in vitro propagated apple rootstocks (M26) based on different soil disinfection treatments and (ii) to explore the treatment effects on root morphology and soil microbial community structure. Methods The bio-test involved soil with apple replant problems (apple sick) and healthy soil from an adjacent plot, both either untreated, or submitted to treatments of 50 and 100 °C, or the chemical soil disinfectant Basamid. Histological analyses of roots and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints in rhizosphere soil collected at the final evaluation were performed. Results After 10 weeks, shoot dry mass on apple sick soil was 79, 108 and 124 % higher for soil treated at 50 °C, 100 °C and with Basamid, respectively, compared to the untreated soil. Roots in untreated apple sick soil showed destroyed epidermal and cortical layers. DGGE fingerprints revealed treatment dependent differences in community composition and relative abundance of total bacteria, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and total fungi. Conclusions The clear differences detected in soil microbial communities are the first steps towards a better understanding of the causes for apple replant problems.
    Keywords: Apple replant disease ; Apple replant problem ; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) ; Malus domestica ; Microbial community profiling ; Root morphology ; Specific soil sickness
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, July 17, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Nucleotidases ; Hydrolysis ; RNA
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2016, Vol.1359, pp.25-46
    Description: Plant embryogenesis is a fascinating developmental program that is very successfully established in nature in seeds. In case of in vitro somatic embryogenesis this process is subjected to several limitations such as asynchronous differentiation and further development of somatic embryos, malformations and disturbed polarity, precocious germination, lack of maturity, early loss of embryogenic potential, and strong genotypic differences in the regeneration efficiency. Several studies have shown the similarity of somatic and zygotic embryos in terms of morphological, histological, biochemical, and physiological aspects. However, pronounced differences have also been reported and refer to much higher stress levels, less accumulation of storage compounds and a missing distinction of differentiation and germination by a quiescent phase in somatic embryos. Here, an overview on recent literature describing both embryogenesis pathways, comparing somatic and zygotic embryos and analyzing the role of the endosperm is presented. By taking zygotic embryos as the reference and learning from the situation in seeds, somatic embryogenesis can be improved and optimized in order to make use of the enormous potential this regeneration pathway offers for plant propagation and breeding.
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Comparative Approach ; Maturation ; Morphology ; Proteome ; Storage Reserves ; Stress Response ; Transcriptome ; Plant Development ; Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques -- Methods ; Plants -- Genetics ; Reproduction, Asexual -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1940-6029
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 2016, Vol.35(2), pp.390-400
    Description: Flowers of the complex orchid hybrid Burrageara ‘Stefan Isler Lava Flow’ had been shown previously to react sensitively to ethylene. Via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the mutant ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE 1 ( etr1 - 1 ) from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific promoter FLOWER BINDING PROTEIN 1 ( fbp1 ) from Petunia hybrida was transferred to Burrageara . One single-copy event was analyzed in this study aiming to investigate the expression of the fbp1::etr1 - 1 transgene in different plant and flower organs by quantitative RT-PCR and the reaction of flowers and inflorescences to ethylene. It was shown that the heterologous promoter led to high expression levels in the perianth of the orchid flowers compared to low levels in leaves and roots. The expression shift to the first whorl (sepals) described here corresponds to extended expression of endogenous B class MADS box homeotic genes in orchids in general. The transgenic plants grew and developed similar to the wild-type plants, except for slightly faster rooting in vitro and smaller flowers. Flower longevity was improved by 7 days in 10 ppm ethylene. Moreover, bud drop starting at day 5 of incubation of inflorescences in 10 ppm ethylene in the wild-type was efficiently prevented for at least 19 days in the fbp1::etr1 - 1 transgenic plants. The function of the tissue-specific promoter fbp1 and the mutant receptor etr1 - 1 was shown for the first time in a monocotyledonous plant.
    Keywords: Ethylene ; Ethylene receptor ; Flower-specific promoter ; Organ-specific expression ; Orchid ; Postharvest life ; Quantitative RT-PCR
    ISSN: 0721-7595
    E-ISSN: 1435-8107
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Euphytica: International Journal of Plant Breeding, 2016, Vol.211(2), p.255(21)
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10681-016-1751-x Byline: Philipp Braun (1), Traud Winkelmann (1) Keywords: Albinism; Delosperma; Embryogenesis; Lampranthus; Pollen tube guidance; Reproductive isolation Abstract: The large succulent plant family Aizoaceae offers an enormous diversity of growth forms and flower pigmentations as well as prevalent tolerance to drought. Although many family members have potential for a wider use as ornamental plants, directed breeding of midday flowers is still in its infancy and only few cultivars have been launched onto the market so far. Most probably, this fact can be ascribed to the presence of cross-incompatibilities. The present study aimed at localization of intra- and intergeneric hybridization barriers between different genotypes of the genera Delosperma and Lampranthus by pollen germination tests, fluorescence and DIC microscopy, in vitro culture of seeds and ovules, and AFLP analysis. Aside from distinct self-incompatibility, the analyses revealed that pollen tube growth towards the ovules was not inhibited, even after intergeneric pollinations. Cross-combinations within Delosperma seemed to be compatible to a high extent, while hybridizations of the investigated Lampranthus genotypes and intergeneric combinations were largely unsuccessful. Investigations of embryo sacs following wide crosses using ovule clearing and differential interference contrast microscopy revealed fertilization failures as well as abnormal early embryogenesis. Seedlings obtained after wide crossings, mostly exhibited partial or complete loss of chlorophyll causing frequent hybrid breakdown. We therefore conclude that hybridization barriers between the investigated midday flowers occur both pre- and postzygotically. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz Universitat Hannover, Herrenhauser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 12/07/2016 Received Date: 18/03/2016 Accepted Date: 11/07/2016 Online Date: 11/08/2016 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10681-016-1751-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Fluorescence Microscopy – Analysis ; Chlorophyll – Analysis ; Flowers – Analysis ; Fluorescence – Analysis ; Horticultural Industry – Analysis
    ISSN: 0014-2336
    E-ISSN: 15735060
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Caryologia, 01 October 2016, Vol.69(4), pp.303-314
    Description: Endoreduplication (continuous DNA replication without chromosomal or cellular division) is known to be extraordinarily pronounced in a number of succulent plants, including midday flower species. Cytological investigations in different genotypes of the Aizoaceae genera Lampranthus and Delosperma...
    Keywords: Delosperma ; DNA Content ; Endoreduplication ; Lampranthus ; Male Germ Unit ; Unreduced Gametes ; Biology
    ISSN: 0008-7114
    E-ISSN: 2165-5391
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Scientia Horticulturae, 19 August 2017, Vol.222, pp.111-125
    Description: Frequent replanting causes biotic stress due to an altered soil and rhizosphere biome and results in apple replant disease (ARD). The disease is expressed by diminished growth and negatively affects fruit yield and quality. Recent studies aiming at understanding ARD on a molecular level showed that ARD affected plants suffer from oxidative stress. Genes involved in secondary metabolism reactions play an important role in the molecular ARD response of roots. Although the root system has to endure the biotic stress attack in the first place, severe symptoms of ARD can be visualized on aboveground plant parts. The objective of this study was to examine the transcriptomic response of leaves representing the metabolically active aboveground parts of ARD challenged apple plants and to compare results with existing data for roots to generate a more complete picture of ARD affected molecular reactions. For this, biotic stress response genes induced by ARD in roots were studied in RT-qPCR analyses using leaves of ARD sensitive ‘M26’ plants grown in two ARD soils, also in a time-dependent approach. Furthermore, an RNA sequencing approach employing MACE (massive analysis of cDNA ends) for transcriptome profiling was performed in order to identify further leaf specific candidate genes. RT-qPCR analyses did not reveal major differences in root candidate gene expression, but MACE indicated the upregulation of common biotic stress response genes. However, potential systemic oxidative stress occurred and ‘M26’ plants did not develop an effective defense response to ARD.
    Keywords: Apple Replant Disease ; Biotic Stress Response ; Gene Expression ; Mace (Massive Analysis of Cdna Ends) ; Malus Domestica ; Oxidative Stress ; Quantitative Rt-Pcr ; RNA-Seq ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0304-4238
    E-ISSN: 1879-1018
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Phytopathology, October 2011, Vol.159(10), pp.665-675
    Description: Hellebore leaf spot, caused by , is the most common fungal disease of species not only in botanical and ornamental gardens but also in nurseries. To correct the current lack of knowledge regarding this widely distributed pathogen, this study investigated 25 isolates collected from different countries in North America and Europe, primarily Germany. The morphology, pathogenicity and molecular genetic relationships on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) of these isolates were studied. RAPD primers produced a total of 394 bands, of which 40% were polymorphic. Genetic distances were calculated, and a dendrogram with bootstrap analysis was constructed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster method. All isolates were identified as , the causal agent of the disease. Two subclades were found, which could not be correlated with the geographic origin of the isolate, but with the plant host species and morphological characteristics. Sequence comparisons of the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer loci between and sequences from GenBank revealed that has to be grouped into the family and rather belongs to or than to . This work represents the first study of this plant pathogen causing severe damage in stocks and provides important information for the development of future resistance breeding strategies.
    Keywords: Black Spot ; Coniothyrium Hellebori ; Fungal Disease ; Genetic Variability ; Helleborus ; Microsphaeropsis ; Phoma ; Random Amplified Polymorphic Dna
    ISSN: 0931-1785
    E-ISSN: 1439-0434
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