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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 02 October 2015, Vol.13(3-4), pp.186-188
    Description: The growing presence of computer-based testing has brought with it the capability to routinely capture the time that test takers spend on individual test items. This, in turn, has led to an increased interest in potential applications of response time in measuring intellectual ability and achievement. Goldhammer (this issue) provides a very useful overview of much of the research in this area, and he provides a thoughtful analysis of the speed-ability trade-off and its impact on measurement. This author does not claim to understand why test takers tend to increase their time efficiency during MAP test events, although he notes that, having reanalyzed some of his own data, he had observed this phenomenon in data from 2 very different testing programs. How commonly this effect is present in test data is, for the time being, unclear. Whatever its nature, however, this increasing efficiency effect appears to (at least sometimes) represent an additional systematic factor influencing response time. And whenever this effect is present to a material degree, it threatens the validity of models that presume that item response time is systematically influenced only by item time intensity and the test taker's ability and working speed. It confounds attempts to exploit a speed-ability trade-off, which is central to many of the models that Goldhammer discussed. If exhibited speed can change without a commensurate change in exhibited ability, the usefulness of response time in estimating a test taker's ability is undermined. Hence, whenever an increased efficiency effect is present, it represents an inconvenient reality for response-time-based psychometric models.
    Keywords: Social Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1536-6367
    E-ISSN: 1536-6359
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Measurement in Education, 03 July 2015, Vol.28(3), pp.237-252
    Description: Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires...
    Keywords: Education
    ISSN: 0895-7347
    E-ISSN: 1532-4818
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  • 3
    In: Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, December 2017, Vol.36(4), pp.52-61
    Description: The rise of computer‐based testing has brought with it the capability to measure more aspects of a test event than simply the answers selected or constructed by the test taker. One behavior that has drawn much research interest is the time test takers spend responding to individual multiple‐choice items. In particular, very short response time—termed —has been shown to indicate disengaged test taking, regardless whether it occurs in high‐stakes or low‐stakes testing contexts. This article examines rapid‐guessing behavior—its theoretical conceptualization and underlying assumptions, methods for identifying it, misconceptions regarding its dynamics, and the contextual requirements for its proper interpretation. It is argued that because it does not reflect what a test taker knows and can do, a rapid guess to an item represents a choice by the test taker to momentarily opt out of being measured. As a result, rapid guessing tends to negatively distort scores and thereby diminish validity. Therefore, because rapid guesses do not contribute to measurement, it makes little sense to include them in scoring.
    Keywords: Motivation ; Rapid Guessing ; Score Validity ; Test‐Taking Engagement
    ISSN: 0731-1745
    E-ISSN: 1745-3992
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied Measurement in Education, 02 October 2017, Vol.30(4), pp.343-354
    Description: There has been an increased interest in the impact of unmotivated test taking on test performance and score validity. This has led to the development of new ways of measuring test-taking effort based on item response time. In particular, Response...
    Keywords: Education
    ISSN: 0895-7347
    E-ISSN: 1532-4818
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Educational Measurement, March 2016, Vol.53(1), pp.86-105
    Description: This study examined the utility of response time‐based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid‐guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent unmotivated test taking behavior. Test taker behavior was found to be inconsistent with these models, with the exception of the effort‐moderated model. Effort‐moderated scoring was found to both yield scores that were more accurate than those found under traditional scoring, and exhibit improved person fit statistics. In addition, an effort‐guided adaptive test was proposed and shown by a simulation study to alleviate item difficulty mistargeting caused by unmotivated test taking.
    Keywords: Education;
    ISSN: 0022-0655
    E-ISSN: 1745-3984
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Testing Technology, May 2011, Vol.12
    Description: Development of adaptive tests used in K-12 settings requires the creation of stable measurement scales to measure the growth of individual students from one grade to the next, and to measure change in groups from one year to the next. Accountability...
    Keywords: Elementary Secondary Education ; Adaptive Testing ; Academic Achievement ; Measures (Individuals) ; Computation ; Accountability ; Measurement Objectives ; Measurement Techniques ; Test Construction ; Robustness (Statistics) ; Item Analysis ; Longitudinal Studies ; Difficulty Level ; Test Items ; Rating Scales ; Mathematics Tests ; Reading Tests
    Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Educational Assessment, 30 March 2010, Vol.15(1), pp.27-41
    Description: Educational program assessment studies often use data from low-stakes tests to provide evidence of program quality. The validity of scores from such tests, however, is potentially threatened by examinee noneffort. This study investigated the...
    Keywords: Education
    ISSN: 1062-7197
    E-ISSN: 1532-6977
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Testing, 11 August 2010, Vol.10(3), pp.207-229
    Description: This investigation examined whether different rates of rapid guessing between groups could lead to detectable levels of differential item functioning (DIF) in situations where the item parameters were the same for both groups. Two simulation studies were designed to explore this possibility....
    Keywords: Effort ; Motivation ; Dif ; Rapid-Guessing ; Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1530-5058
    E-ISSN: 1532-7574
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  • 9
    In: Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, December 2015, Vol.34(4), pp.41-48
    Description: The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do not use fixed test forms. This article describes the decisions made in the development of CATs that influence and might threaten content alignment. It outlines a process for evaluating alignment that is sensitive to these threats and gives an empirical example of the process.
    Keywords: Computerized Adaptive Testing ; Content Alignment
    ISSN: 0731-1745
    E-ISSN: 1745-3992
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical Research, 2011, Vol.28(6), pp.1415-1421
    Description: Byline: Anna Waterhouse (1), Daniel V. Bax (2), Steven G. Wise (3), Yongbai Yin (2), Louise L. Dunn (3), Giselle C. Yeo (1), Martin K. C. Ng (4), Marcela M. M. Bilek (2), Anthony S. Weiss (1) Keywords: kallikrein; plasma-activated; thrombin; tropoelastin Abstract: Purpose To modify blood-contacting stainless surfaces by covalently coating them with a serum-protease resistant form of tropoelastin (TE). To demonstrate that the modified TE retains an exposed, cell-adhesive C-terminus that persists in the presence of blood plasma proteases. Methods Recombinant human TE and a point mutant variant (R515A) of TE were labeled with 125.sup.Iodine and immobilized on plasma-activated stainless steel (PAC) surfaces. Covalent attachment was confirmed using rigorous detergent washing. As kallikrein and thrombin dominate the serum degradation of tropoelastin, supraphysiological levels of these proteases were incubated with covalently bound TE and R515A, then assayed for protein levels by radioactivity detection. Persistence of the C-terminus was assessed by ELISA. Results TE was significantly retained covalently on PAC surfaces at 88+-5% and 71+-5% after treatment with kallikrein and thrombin, respectively. Retention of R515A was 100+-1.3% and 87+-2.3% after treatment with kallikrein and thrombin, respectively, representing significant improvements over TE. The functionally important C-terminus was cleaved in wild-type TE but retained by R515A. Conclusions Protein persists in the presence of human kallikrein and thrombin when covalently immobilized on metal substrata. R515A displays enhanced protease resistance and retains the C-terminus presenting a protein interface that is viable for blood-contacting applications. Author Affiliation: (1) School of Molecular Bioscience,, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia (2) Applied & Plasma Physics Group, Physics School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia (3) The Heart Research Institute, Sydney, NSW, 2042, Australia (4) Department of Cardiology,, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, 2050, Australia Article History: Registration Date: 11/11/2010 Received Date: 07/10/2010 Accepted Date: 11/11/2010 Online Date: 20/11/2010
    Keywords: kallikrein ; plasma-activated ; thrombin ; tropoelastin
    ISSN: 0724-8741
    E-ISSN: 1573-904X
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