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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, Jan, 2013, Vol.126, p.60(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.08.004 Byline: Livia Wissing (a), Angelika Kolbl (a), Werner Hausler (a), Peter Schad (a), Zhi-Hong Cao (b), Ingrid Kogel-Knabner (a)(c) Keywords: Soil management; Rice cultivation; Chronosequence; Soil mineralogy; Soil organic carbon composition; Fine mineral fraction Abstract: a* Paddy management creates specific conditions of Fe oxide formation. a* Paddy soils have higher potentials for OC accumulation. a* Management-induced higher proportions of Fe.sub.o are associated with a higher OC accumulation in the paddy soils. a* No selective enrichment of lignin-derived compounds during 2000years of paddy pedogenesis. Author Affiliation: (a) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universitat Munchen, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (b) Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China (c) Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, D-85748 Garching, Germany Article History: Received 13 June 2012; Revised 3 August 2012; Accepted 5 August 2012
    Keywords: Soil Mineralogy ; Soil Management (Agronomy) ; Soils ; Soil Carbon ; Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, Sept, 2014, Vol.228-229, p.90(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.12.012 Byline: Livia Wissing, Angelika Kolbl, Peter Schad, Tino Brauer, Zhi-Hong Cao, Ingrid Kogel-Knabner Abstract: We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation in organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in the Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations, radiocarbon (.sup.14C) contents, total pedogenic iron oxide concentration and oxalate extractable proportions of iron (Fe.sub.OX) oxides. The specific surface area of soil minerals was measured with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-N.sub.2) method on four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron oxide removal and after removal of both. Initial soil formation on calcareous marine sediments includes soil decalcification and OC accumulation. Paddy soils are characterized by an accelerated decalcification, higher contents of OC and Fe.sub.OX oxides, and a pronounced accumulation of modern OC. The mineral constitution of the soil material indicated already a certain degree of weathering since the earliest stages of pedogenesis and remained unchanged in paddy and non-paddy soils. The study provides no evidence of formation of new clay-sized minerals during soil development, which could supply new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverage on mineral surfaces in decalcified paddy soils. Therefore, we assume the specific surface area and the specific affinity of Fe.sub.OX oxides for OC storage to play an important role for OC accumulation in organo-mineral associations. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification and the proportion of Fe.sub.OX oxides were much lower, showed significantly lower OC coverage. Selective removal of SOM or iron oxides clearly showed that iron oxides and SOM protect each other in organo-mineral associations primarily in paddy fine clay-sized fraction. Thus, we explained the higher OC coverage on mineral surfaces by complex association between clay minerals, iron oxides and SOM in paddy soils. Article History: Received 6 December 2012; Revised 12 December 2013; Accepted 17 December 2013
    Keywords: Oxides -- Analysis ; Soils -- Analysis ; Wetlands -- Analysis ; Ferric Oxide -- Analysis ; Mineralogical Research -- Analysis ; Clay Minerals -- Analysis ; Marine Sediments -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, September 2011, Vol.77(17), pp.6109-16
    Description: In many areas of China, tidal wetlands have been converted into agricultural land for rice cultivation. However, the consequences of land use changes for soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities involved in inorganic nitrogen turnover (nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification) based on abundances and relative species richness of the corresponding functional genes along a soil chronosequence ranging between 50 and 2,000 years of paddy soil management compared to findings for a tidal wetland. Changes in abundance and diversity of the functional groups could be observed, reflecting the different chemical and physical properties of the soils, which changed in terms of soil development. The tidal wetland was characterized by a low microbial biomass and relatively high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microbes. Conversion of the tidal wetlands into paddy soils was followed by a significant increase in microbial biomass. Fifty years of paddy management resulted in a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing microbes than was found in the tidal wetland, whereas dominant genes of nitrification and denitrification in the paddy soils showed no differences. With ongoing rice cultivation, copy numbers of archaeal ammonia oxidizers did not change, while that of their bacterial counterparts declined. The nirK gene, coding for nitrite reductase, increased with rice cultivation time and dominated its functionally redundant counterpart, nirS, at all sites under investigation. Relative species richness showed significant differences between all soils with the exception of the archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the paddy soils cultivated for 100 and 300 years. In general, changes in diversity patterns were more pronounced than those in functional gene abundances.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Denitrification ; Nitrification ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Soil Microbiology ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2011, Vol.87(3), pp.376-385
    Description: Considerable amounts of soil organic matter (SOM) are stabilized in paddy soils, and thus a large proportion of the terrestrial carbon is conserved in wetland rice soils. Nonetheless, the mechanisms for stabilization of organic carbon (OC) in paddy soils are largely unknown. Based on a chronosequence derived from marine sediments, the objectives of this study are to investigate the accumulation of OC and the concurrent loss of inorganic carbon (IC) and to identify the role of the soil fractions for the stabilization of OC with increasing duration of paddy soil management. A chronosequence of six age groups of paddy soil formation was chosen in the Zhejiang Province (PR China), ranging from 50 to 2000 years (yrs) of paddy management. Soil samples obtained from horizontal sampling of three soil profiles within each age group were analyzed for bulk density (BD), OC as well as IC concentrations, OC stocks of bulk soil and the OC contributions to the bulk soil of the particle size fractions. Paddy soils are characterized by relatively low bulk densities in the puddled topsoil horizons (1.0 and 1.2 g cm ) and high values in the plow pan (1.6 g cm ). Our results demonstrate a substantial loss of carbonates during soil formation, as the upper 20 cm were free of carbonates in 100-year-old paddy soils, but carbonate removal from the entire soil profile required almost 700 yrs of rice cultivation. We observed an increase of topsoil OC stocks from 2.5 to 4.4 kg m during 50 to 2000 yrs of paddy management. The OC accumulation in the bulk soil was dominated by the silt- and clay-sized fractions. The silt fraction showed a high accretion of OC and seems to be an important long-term OC sink during soil evolution. Fine clay in the puddled topsoil horizon was already saturated and the highest storage capacity for OC was calculated for coarse clay. With longer paddy management, the fractions 〈 20 μm showed an increasing actual OC saturation level, but did not reach the calculated potential storage capacity. ► Chronosequence consisting of 50 to 2000 years of paddy soil evolution. ► OC accumulation during 2000 years of paddy pedogenesis. ► Soil fractions are responsible for OC accumulation. ► Fine mineral fractions showed an increasing actual OC saturation.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon (Soc) ; Particle Size Fractionation ; OC Storage Capacity ; Pedogenesis ; Fine Mineral Fraction ; Cultivation History ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 5
    In: Global Change Biology, November 2011, Vol.17(11), pp.3405-3417
    Description: Lowland rice paddy soils may accumulate significant amounts of organic matter. Our aim was to investigate the role of prolonged paddy management on the nitrogen () status of the soils, and to elucidate the contribution of bacteria and fungi to long‐term accumulation processes. For this purpose, we sampled a chronosequence of 0–2000 years of rice cropping with adjacent non‐paddy systems in the ay of angzhou, hina. The samples were analyzed for bulk density, total, mineral and microbial (), and amino sugars as markers for microbial residues. The results showed that during the first 100 years of land embankment, both paddy and non‐paddy soils accumulated at a rate of up to 61 and 77 kg ha per annum, reaching steady‐state conditions after 110–172 years, respectively. Final stocks in paddy fields exceeded those of the non‐paddies by a factor of 1.3. The contribution of amino sugars to total increased to a maximum of 34 g  kg  in both land‐use systems, highlighting a significant accumulation of in microbial residues of the surface soils. Correspondingly, the ratio of to microbial residue‐ decreased to a constant value. In the paddy subsoils, we found that bacterial residues particularly contributed to the pool of microbial residue‐. Nevertheless, the absolute contents of amino sugars in paddy subsoils decreased during the last 1700 years of the chronosequence. We conclude that under paddy cultivation, soil microorganisms may accumulate parts of this in their residues despite low overall availability. However, this accumulation is limited to initial stages of paddy soil development and restricted to the surface horizons, thus challenging its sustainability with future land‐use changes.
    Keywords: Amino Sugars ; Cultivation Chronosequence ; Microbial Biomass ; Nitrogen Accumulation ; Paddy Soil
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 6
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2013, Vol.19(4), pp.1107-1113
    Description: More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long‐term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000‐year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the angtze delta, hina. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the ntergovernmental anel on limate hange (). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170–178 kg organic carbon ha a in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29–84 kg organic carbon ha a during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Inorganic Carbon ; Land Use ; Organic Carbon ; Paddy ; Rice Cultivation ; Soils ; Subsoils
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2011, Vol.47(7), pp.839-843
    Description: In the last years, archaea have been identified as key players in global N cycling, especially in nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are postulated to belong to the new phylum Thaumarchaeota for which the lipid crenarchaeol should be specific. The ratios between two independent markers for AOA, the ammonia monooxygenase gene and crenarchaeol have been studied in different aerated soils, but so far not in flooded soils. This study investigated ammonia-oxidizing archaea in four paddy soils and a tidal wetland. Ratios were significantly higher in the paddy soils compared to the tidal wetland and in general higher as in upland soils, leading to the assumption that archaeal ammonia oxidizers different from crenarchaeol-containing Thaumarchaeota may play an important role in paddy soils.
    Keywords: Ammonia-oxidizing archaea ( gene) ; Paddy soil ; Tidal wetland ; Isoprenoidal GDGT ; Crenarchaeol ; Caldarchaeol
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, January 2013, Vol.126, pp.60-71
    Description: ► Paddy management creates specific conditions of Fe oxide formation. ► Paddy soils have higher potentials for OC accumulation. ► Management-induced higher proportions of Fe are associated with a higher OC accumulation in the paddy soils. ► No selective enrichment of lignin-derived compounds during 2000 years of paddy pedogenesis. Iron (Fe) oxides strongly interact with organic matter in soil and play an important role in the stabilization of organic matter. These processes are often influenced by soil cultivation, including tillage, crop rotation and irrigation. We assessed the effect of Fe oxides on organic carbon (OC) accumulation during the development of soils used for paddy rice production in comparison to non-irrigated cropping systems. Soil samples were taken from two chronosequences derived from uniform parent material in the Zhejiang Province (PR China). Bulk soils and soil fractions were analyzed for OC concentrations, soil mineralogy and soil organic matter (SOM) composition was determined by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy. Paddy soils were characterized by increasing OC concentrations, from 18 mg g to 30 mg g , during 2000 years of rice cultivation, but OC concentrations of non-paddy soils were low in all age classes (11 mg g ). SOM composition revealed from Solid-state C NMR spectroscopy did not change during pedogenesis in either chronosequence. Selective enrichment of lignin-derived compounds, caused by long-term paddy rice management, could not be confirmed by the present study. The management of paddy soils creates an environment of Fe oxide formation which was different to those in non-paddy soils. Paddy soils are dominated by poorly crystalline Fe oxides (Fe ) and significantly lower content of crystalline Fe oxides (Fe − Fe ). This was in contrast to non-paddy soils, which are characterized by high proportions of crystalline Fe oxides. The paddy-specific Fe oxide composition was effective after only 50 years of soil development and the proportion Fe oxides did not alter during further pedogenesis. This chronosequence study revealed that the potential for OC accumulation was higher in paddy versus non-paddy soils and was already reached at earliest stages of paddy soil development. Changes in paddy soil management associated with redox cycle changes will not only affect Fe oxide composition of paddy soils but most probably also OC storage potential.
    Keywords: Soil Management ; Rice Cultivation ; Chronosequence ; Soil Mineralogy ; Soil Organic Carbon Composition ; Fine Mineral Fraction ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, September 2014, Vol.228-229, pp.90-103
    Description: We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation in organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in the Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations, radiocarbon ( C) contents, total pedogenic iron oxide concentration and oxalate extractable proportions of iron (Fe ) oxides. The specific surface area of soil minerals was measured with the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET-N ) method on four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron oxide removal and after removal of both. Initial soil formation on calcareous marine sediments includes soil decalcification and OC accumulation. Paddy soils are characterized by an accelerated decalcification, higher contents of OC and Fe oxides, and a pronounced accumulation of modern OC. The mineral constitution of the soil material indicated already a certain degree of weathering since the earliest stages of pedogenesis and remained unchanged in paddy and non-paddy soils. The study provides no evidence of formation of new clay-sized minerals during soil development, which could supply new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverage on mineral surfaces in decalcified paddy soils. Therefore, we assume the specific surface area and the specific affinity of Fe oxides for OC storage to play an important role for OC accumulation in organo-mineral associations. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification and the proportion of Fe oxides were much lower, showed significantly lower OC coverage. Selective removal of SOM or iron oxides clearly showed that iron oxides and SOM protect each other in organo-mineral associations primarily in paddy fine clay-sized fraction. Thus, we explained the higher OC coverage on mineral surfaces by complex association between clay minerals, iron oxides and SOM in paddy soils.
    Keywords: Pedogenesis ; Chronosequence ; Paddy Rice Cultivation ; Iron Oxides ; Specific Surface Area ; Decalcification ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: 2015
    Keywords: Iron Oxides ; Iron Oxides ; Decalcification ; Pedogenesis ; Oxalates ; Organic Matter ; Iron ; Marine Sediments ; Paddy Soils ; Carbon ; Chronosequences ; Oxides ; Soil Formation ; Age Of Soil ; Paddies ; Mineral Soils ; Chronosequence ; Paddy Rice Cultivation ; Highlands ; Soil Minerals ; Weathering ; Clay Minerals ; Specific Surface Area ; Wetlands ; Crops ; Surface Area
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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