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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 13 September 2011, Vol.108(37), pp.15450-5
    Description: We tested the influence of a photothrombotic lesion in somatosensory cortex on plasticity in the mouse visual system and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment to rescue compromised learning. To challenge plasticity mechanisms, we induced monocular deprivation (MD) in 3-mo-old mice. In control animals, MD induced an increase of visual acuity of the open eye and an ocular dominance (OD) shift towards this eye. In contrast, after photothrombosis, there was neither an enhancement of visual acuity nor an OD-shift. However, OD-plasticity was present in the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion. Anti-inflammatory treatment restored sensory learning but not OD-plasticity, as did a 2-wk delay between photothrombosis and MD. We conclude that (i) both sensory learning and cortical plasticity are compromised in the surround of a cortical lesion; (ii) transient inflammation is responsible for impaired sensory learning, suggesting anti-inflammatory treatment as a useful adjuvant therapy to support rehabilitation following stroke; and (iii) OD-plasticity cannot be conceptualized solely as a local process because nonlocal influences are more important than previously assumed.
    Keywords: Neuronal Plasticity -- Physiology ; Stroke -- Physiopathology ; Visual Cortex -- Physiopathology ; Visual Pathways -- Physiopathology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Epilepsia, September 2011, Vol.52(9), pp.1532-1543
    Description: Epileptic seizures rank among the most frequent neurologic symptoms during the neonatal period. Accumulating data from experimental animal studies and clinical trials in humans suggest that neonatal seizures could adversely affect normal brain development and result in long‐term neurologic sequelae. Unfortunately, currently used anticonvulsive drugs are often ineffective in the neonatal period. One particularity of the immature neuronal network during neonatal development is that the neurotransmitter γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) is mainly depolarizing, rather than hyperpolarizing as commonly observed in adults. This might, in part, explain not only the higher seizure propensity of the immature neuronal network, but also the limited anticonvulsive efficacy of GABA‐enhancing drugs during early postnatal life. Accordingly, pharmacologic attenuation of GABAergic depolarization has been proposed as a strategy for neonatal seizure control. However, the underlying conjecture of a depolarizing mode of GABA action has been seriously challenged recently. In the present review, we will summarize the state of knowledge regarding GABAergic depolarization in early life and discuss how these data might impact a currently tested anticonvulsive strategy.
    Keywords: Gaba A Receptor ; Chloride ; Nkcc1 ; Bumetanide ; Cortex ; Epilepsy
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 February 2011, Vol.108(7), pp.3011-6
    Description: Moderate maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy occurs in both developing and developed countries. In addition to poverty, maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, and uterine vascular problems in older mothers are causes of decreased fetal nutrition. We evaluated the impact of global 30% maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) on early fetal baboon brain maturation. MNR induced major cerebral developmental disturbances without fetal growth restriction or marked maternal weight reduction. Mechanisms evaluated included neurotrophic factor suppression, cell proliferation and cell death imbalance, impaired glial maturation and neuronal process formation, down-regulation of gene ontological pathways and related gene products, and up-regulated transcription of cerebral catabolism. Contrary to the known benefits from this degree of dietary reduction on life span, MNR in pregnancy compromises structural fetal cerebral development, potentially having an impact on brain function throughout life.
    Keywords: Brain -- Embryology ; Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena -- Physiology ; Papio -- Embryology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, Oct 15, 2015, Vol.293, p.89(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.07.014 Byline: Stefan Brodoehl, Carsten Klingner, Katharina Stieglitz, Otto W. Witte Abstract: * Eye closure improves somatosensory perception in healthy, young and old adults. * With aging the gain of increased perception diminishes. * Cortical activation due to eye closure differs in young and old adults. * Decreased ability for unisensory processing is a general phenomenon in aging. * Aging brain tends to shift toward multisensory integration. Author Affiliation: (a) Hans Berger Department for Neurology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany (b) Brain Imaging Center, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany Article History: Received 4 June 2015; Revised 1 July 2015; Accepted 3 July 2015
    Keywords: Elderly
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, Feb 1, 2013, Vol.238, p.259(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.10.038 Byline: Stefan Brodoehl (a)(b), Carsten Klingner (a)(b), Katharina Stieglitz (b), Otto W. Witte (a)(b) Keywords: Age-related; Somatosensory cortex; Inhibition; BOLD signal; Current perception threshold; fMRI Abstract: a* We examined age-related changes in current perception thresholds (CPT) and somatosensory processing using fMRI. a* Activations in the contralateral SI and ipsilateral frontal cortex are increased in elderly. a* Activations in the bilateral SII and the cingulate cortex are decreased in elderly. a* The amplitude of the BOLD signal is reduced in SII but not in SI in elderly. Author Affiliation: (a) Hans Berger Clinic for Neurology, University of Jena, Germany (b) Brain Imaging Center, University of Jena, Germany Article History: Received 3 September 2012; Revised 17 October 2012; Accepted 20 October 2012
    Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, 2011, Vol.225(2), pp.432-436
    Description: ► It was investigated where within the somatosensory brain network neuronal habituation originates. ► fMRI was performed on 43 healthy subjects during somatosensory stimulation. ► Habituation is measureable primarily between subareas of the primary somatosensory cortex. ► Results indicate, that habituation originates mainly by thalamocortical interactions. Habituation is a basic process of learning evident in a decrement in neuronal/behavioral responses to repeated sensory stimulation. It is generally accepted that habituation affects all sensory systems in the human brain, including the somatosensory network. However, it is not clear where habituation originates within this hierarchically organized network. In this study, we examined whether habituation effects increase relatively uniformly along the processing hierarchy or rather distinctly at a particular processing stage. We addressed these questions by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on 43 healthy subjects during unilateral electrical median nerve stimulation using a block design. We found a time-dependent decrease in the positive BOLD response (indicative of habituation) in all areas of the somatosensory network with the exception of Brodmann area (BA) 3b. The increase in habituation within the presumed processing stream was most pronounced between subareas of the primary somatosensory cortex (BA3b, BA1, BA2), and no further increase in habituation effects was observed in the subsequent processing stages within either the secondary somatosensory cortex or the insula. Moreover, we found a relatively strong habituation effect within the thalamus. These findings indicate that the increase in habituation along the processing hierarchy is measurable primarily between subareas of the primary somatosensory cortex, and we hypothesize that this increase originates in thalamocortical interactions early in the processing stream.
    Keywords: Fmri ; Bold ; Somatosensory Cortex ; Inhibition ; Habituation ; Thalamus ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 18727549
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 October 2014, Vol.99, pp.323-331
    Description: Current findings suggest that confidence emerges only decision making. However, the temporal and neural dynamics of the emergence of post-decision confidence – a metacognitive judgement – are not fully explored. To gain insight into the dynamics of post-decision confidence processing and to disentangle the processes underlying confidence judgements and decision making, we applied a tactile discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results revealed that reaction times to post-decision confidence depend on the level of confidence, suggesting that post-decision confidence in a perceptual choice is not processed in parallel to perceptual decision making. Moreover, we demonstrated by the parametric analysis of fMRI data that post-decisionally modelled confidence processing can be distinguished from processes related to decision making through anatomical location and through the pattern of neural activity. In contrast to perceptual decision making, post-decision confidence appears to be strictly allocated to a prefrontal network of brain regions, primarily the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, areas that have been related to metacognition. Moreover, the processes underlying decision making and post-decision confidence may share recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, although the former probably has distinct functions with regard to processing of perceptual choices and post-decision confidence. Thus, this is the first fMRI study to disentangle the processes underlying post-decision confidence and decision making on behavioural, neuroanatomical, and neurofunctional levels. With regard to the temporal evolution of post-decision confidence, results of the present study provide strong support for the most recent theoretical models of human perceptual decision making, and thus provide implications for investigating confidence in perceptual paradigms.
    Keywords: Perceptual Decision Making ; Post-Decision Confidence ; Metacognition ; Fmri ; Grating Orientation Task ; Anterior Prefrontal Cortex ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 8
    In: Critical Care Medicine, 2012, Vol.40(2), pp.687-688
    Keywords: Brain Injuries -- Drug Therapy ; Cerebral Hemorrhage -- Drug Therapy ; Neuroprotective Agents -- Pharmacology ; Organometallic Compounds -- Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0090-3493
    E-ISSN: 15300293
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience Letters, June 17, 2013, Vol.545, p.40(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.04.013 Byline: Marie Liebmann, Anna Stahr, Madlen Guenther, Otto W. Witte, Christiane Frahm Abstract: acents Neurogenesis in Cx43 and Cx30 knockout mice was investigated. acents Cx43KO and Cx30KO leads to a reduced and an enhanced survival of newborn cells, respectively. acents First indication, that astrocytic connexins affect neurogenic processes in an opposing manner. Author Affiliation: Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena, Germany Article History: Received 22 October 2012; Revised 26 March 2013; Accepted 13 April 2013
    ISSN: 0304-3940
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Sept, 2012, Vol.36, p.2632(8)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08174.x/abstract Byline: Jan A. Jablonka(1)(2), Malgorzata Kossut(2), Otto W. Witte(3), Monika Liguz-Lecznar(2) Keywords: 2DG; inflammation; plasticity; rat; somatosensory cortex Abstract Despite indications that brain plasticity may be enhanced after stroke, we have described impairment of experience-dependent plasticity in rat cerebral cortex neighboring the stroke-induced lesion. Photothrombotic stroke was centered behind the barrel cortex in one cerebral hemisphere of rats. Plasticity of cortical representation of one row of vibrissae was induced by sensory deprivation of all surrounding whiskers for 1 month, and visualized with [.sub.14C]-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. In control rats deprivation resulted in an enlargement of functional cortical representation of the spared row of vibrissae. After a focal stroke neighbouring the barrel cortex, no plasticity of the spared row representation was found. Investigation of plastic changes with deprivation initiated 1 week and 1 month after stroke have shown that later poststroke onset of deprivation resulted in a partial recovery of cortical plasticity in the barrel field. Western blot analysis of proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression revealed its strong upregulation in the barrel cortex 24 h after stroke. When chronic treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg) accompanied deprivation, plasticity was restored. Ibuprofen applied before the ischemia also prevented the poststroke upregulation of COX-2. The results strongly suggest that poststroke impairment of experience-dependent cortical plasticity is caused by stroke-induced inflammatory reactions that subside with poststroke delay and can be at least partially ameliorated by pharmacological treatment. Author Affiliation: (1)Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland (2)Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland (3)Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Correspondence: (*) Malgorzata Kossut, as above. E-mail: kossut@nencki.gov.pl Received 17 November 2011, revised 27 April 2012, accepted 30 April 2012
    Keywords: Universities And Colleges -- Physiological Aspects ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Enzymes -- Physiological Aspects ; Enzymes -- Analysis ; Ibuprofen -- Physiological Aspects ; Ibuprofen -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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