Environmental science & technology, 12 July 2019
Methane (CH) enters waters in hydrocarbon-rich basins because of natural processes and problems related to oil and gas wells. As a redox-active greenhouse gas, CH degrades water or emits to the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. To detect if methane migrated from hydrocarbon wells (i.e., anomalous methane), we examined 20 751 methane-containing groundwaters from the Upper Appalachian Basin (AB). We looked for concentrations (mg/L) that indicated AB brine salts (chloride concentrations ([Cl]) 〉 30; [Ca]/[Na] 〈 0.52) to detect natural methane, and we looked for concentrations of redox-active species ([SO] ≥ 6; [Fe] ≥ 0.3) to detect anomalous methane. These indicators highlight natural contamination by methane-containing brines or recent onset of microbial oxidation of methane coupled to iron- or sulfate-reduction. We hypothesized that only waters recently contaminated by methane still exhibit high iron and sulfate concentrations. Of the AB samples, 17 (0.08%) from 12 sites indicated potential contamination. All were located in areas with high densities of shale-gas or conventional oil/gas wells. In contrast, in southwestern Pennsylvania where brines are shallow and coal, oil, and gas all have been extracted extensively, no sites of recent methane migration were detectable. Such indicators may help screen for contamination in some areas even without predrill measurements.
Wells ; Contamination ; Hydrocarbons ; Water Wells ; Salts ; Iron ; Hydrocarbons ; Methane ; Oxidation ; Brines ; Iron ; Greenhouse Gases ; Indicators ; Climate Change ; Salt Water ; Oxidation ; Sulfate Reduction ; Sulfate Reduction ; Greenhouse Gases ; Oxidation ; Basins ; Methane ; Groundwater ; Greenhouse Effect ; Groundwater Chemistry ; Sulfates ; Oil ; Microorganisms ; Organic Chemistry ; Change Detection ; Sulfate Reduction ; Greenhouse Effect ; Iron ; Gas Wells ; Shale Gas ; Methane ; Brines ; Groundwater ; Brines ; Basins ; Greenhouse Gases ; Shale ; Oil ; Contamination;
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