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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 11 January 2012, Vol.134(1), pp.263-71
    Description: Toehold-mediated strand displacement has proven extremely powerful in programming enzyme-free DNA circuits and DNA nanomachines. To achieve multistep, autonomous, and complex behaviors, toeholds must be initially inactivated by hybridizing to inhibitor strands or domains and then relieved from inactivation in a programmed, timed manner. Although powerful and reasonably robust, this strategy has several drawbacks that limit the architecture of DNA circuits. For example, the combination between toeholds and branch migration (BM) domains is 'hard wired' during DNA synthesis thus cannot be created or changed during the execution of DNA circuits. To solve this problem, I propose a strategy called 'associative toehold activation', where the toeholds and BM domains are connected via hybridization of auxiliary domains during the execution of DNA circuits. Bulged thymidines that stabilize DNA three-way junctions substantially accelerate strand displacement reactions in this scheme, allowing fast strand displacement initiated by reversible toehold binding. To demonstrate the versatility of the scheme, I show (1) run-time combination of toeholds and BM domains, (2) run-time recombination of toeholds and BM domains, which results in a novel operation 'toehold switching', and (3) design of a simple conformational self-replicator.
    Keywords: Computers, Molecular ; DNA -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.524(7564), p.155
    Keywords: Animal Feed–Chemistry ; Animal Shells–Analysis ; Animals–Economics ; Calcium Carbonate–Isolation & Purification ; Chemical Fractionation–Methods ; Chitin–Analysis ; Food Industry–Economics ; Industrial Waste–Isolation & Purification ; Nitrogen–Economics ; Proteins–Analysis ; Recycling–Economics ; Shellfish–Analysis ; Shellfish–Economics ; Shellfish–Analysis ; Shellfish–Economics ; Shellfish–Isolation & Purification ; Shellfish–Economics ; Shellfish–Methods ; Shellfish–Economics ; Industrial Waste ; Proteins ; Chitin ; Calcium Carbonate ; Nitrogen;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 04 September 2013, Vol.135(35), pp.12944-7
    Description: DFT computations show that calixarenes stabilize subnanometer Au11 clusters allowing access of small molecules like O2 to reactive metal sites in the core. Maximum of three dioxygen molecules can bind to the cluster, and they are activated to a superoxo O2(-) state. This study predicts that gold clusters could act as viable oxidation catalysts at ambient conditions based on similar principles as the metal centers in enzymes.
    Keywords: Activation Energy -- Measurement ; Calixarenes -- Chemical Properties ; Calixarenes -- Structure ; Density Functional Theory -- Usage ; Oxidation-reduction Reactions -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 December 2015, Vol.318, pp.36-48
    Description: Pulsing paradigm is regarded general for all scales of ecosystem. The pulsing succession view insists that a resource-dependent system will approach its peak through intensive consumption of resources, then move towards recession and get ready for the next cycle. Urban economy, as an open and resource-dependent subsystem in the whole ecosystem may pulse, and its quantitative growth in physical scale will be limited by the finite ecosystem eventually. This raises one problem: what would be the future of urban economy when it gets to the physical climax under the ecological constraint? Modelling is a feasible approach to simulate and reveal the pulse of a large scale system whose wave length is too long for individuals to witness. In this study, systems ecology-modelling, as a combination of ecological modelling and theories of systems ecology, is applied to take the pulse of urban economy. Cosmic emergy is applied to synthesize the material, energy, information, currency and population flows and stocks, which greatly facilitates and simplifies the simulation. Taking Beijing city as a case, the systems ecology-modelling is carried out, and the pulses of Beijing's economy and its components are partly observed. Suggestions on urban management are proposed accordingly.
    Keywords: Pulse Paradigm ; Urban Economy ; Systems Ecology ; Maximum Empower Principle ; Cosmic Emergy ; Modelling ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 16 August 2013, Vol.341(6147), pp.779-83
    Description: Multituberculates were successful herbivorous mammals and were more diverse and numerically abundant than any other mammal groups in Mesozoic ecosystems. The clade also developed diverse locomotor adaptations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. We report a new fossil skeleton from the Late Jurassic of China that belongs to the basalmost multituberculate family. Dental features of this new Jurassic multituberculate show omnivorous adaptation, and its well-preserved skeleton sheds light on ancestral skeletal features of all multituberculates, especially the highly mobile joints of the ankle, crucial for later evolutionary success of multituberculates in the Cretaceous and Paleogene.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Fossils ; Mammals
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, May 2016, Vol.157, pp.78-86
    Description: Focusing on China's Three Gorges Project (TGP)-Induced Resettlement, the largest scale resettlement induced by a single development project, this study aims to investigate different types of integration patterns among the TGP re-settlers and how modes of integration associate with depressive symptoms. Using Latent Class Analysis, we analyzed survey data on 407 TGP re-settlers. We detected three integration patterns among these re-settlers: the fully integrated (68%), the culturally and economically integrated (21%) and the unintegrated (11%). We found that different integration types were linked to different levels of depressive symptoms. Unless fully integrated and experienced a warm feeling toward new community, re-settlers were vulnerable to elevated depressive symptoms. Our findings that culturally and economically integrated re-settlers had similar levels of depressive symptoms as the unintegrated re-settlers highlighted the importance of subjective dimension of integration and resettlement. We also found that rural re-settlers and those who move with the whole village were more likely to fall into the unintegrated category. Policy implications were discussed.
    Keywords: Resettlement ; Integration ; Depressive Symptoms ; Latent Class Analysis ; China ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 06 July 2012, Vol.337(6090), pp.44-5
    Description: This year marks the 30th anniversary of the discovery of Wnt1 (1), the founding member of a family of conserved secreted factors that define signaling pathways with pivotal roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis, and numerous diseases, including cancer (2, 3). Much later, the transmembrane proteins of the Frizzled (Fz) family were identified as the Wnt receptors (4). Wnt proteins proved extremely challenging to purify as active proteins; they require a lipid modification for activity (5), rendering them hydrophobic and insoluble in the absence of detergent. The resulting lack of structural data has hampered mechanistic progress. The structure of the Wnt-Fz complex reported by Janda et al. on page 59 of this issue (6) provides important insights into how Wnt ligands interact with their receptors.
    Keywords: Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled -- Chemistry ; Wnt Proteins -- Chemistry ; Xenopus Proteins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 05 September 2014, Vol.345(6201), pp.1122-3
    Description: Many physiological and behavioral events exhibit circadian rhythms, which are driven by internal circadian “clocks” that coordinate biological functions through the cyclic expression of at least 10 to 20% of the genes in any given tissue ( 1 ). The robustness of circadian rhythms deteriorates with age, and circadian perturbation results in the development of disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and brain dysfunction. Central to the mammalian clock is the complex of transcriptional regulatory proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 ( 2 ). A recent study by Masri et al. ( 3 ) proposes that SIRT1 and SIRT6, two sirtuin family members with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase activity, regulate different facets of the CLOCK-BMAL1 network, and more surprisingly, control distinct classes of hepatic circadian genes. Partitioning circadian transcription by sirtuins suggests that in response to internal and external stimuli, circadian clocks selectively control sirtuin-dependent functions that are broadly associated with metabolism, stress resistance, inflammation, aging, and tissue regeneration, to provide organisms with plasticity to adapt to changing environments.
    Keywords: Liver -- Metabolism ; Sirtuins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 22 June 2011, Vol.133(24), pp.9204-7
    Description: An efficient process involving Pd-catalyzed selective cleavage of a C(sp(3))-Si bond and consequent intramolecular C(sp(2))-Si coupling has been developed, affording benzosilolo[2,3-b]indoles as a new type of silicon-bridged polyheteroarene in excellent yields. Aldehyde was found for the first time to be able to promote the efficiency of the catalytic process remarkably.
    Keywords: Carbon -- Chemistry ; Indoles -- Chemical Synthesis ; Palladium -- Chemistry ; Silicon -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature, June 10, 2010, Vol.465(7299), p.669(1)
    Keywords: Evolution (Biology) -- Research ; Fossils -- Research ; Gene Expression -- Research ; Mammals -- Physiological Aspects ; Mammals -- Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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