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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, June 15, 2013, Vol.562, p.11(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.02.042 Byline: M. Xie (a), R. Helmink (b), S. Tin (a) Keywords: Superalloy; Eutectic; Delta; Ni.sub.3Nb; Niobium; Tantalum Abstract: a* Ta and Nb have a nominally identical influence on equilibrium [delta] volume fraction. a* Ta and Nb impact the sequence and segregation differently during solidification. a* Microstructure varies with both overall Ta+Nb level and Ta/Nb ratio. a* Pandat (PanNi7) is unable to predict trends quantitatively in this system. Author Affiliation: (a) Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd St., Chicago, IL 60616, United States (b) Rolls-Royce Corporation, PO Box 420, Indianapolis, IN 46206, United States Article History: Received 19 December 2012; Revised 4 February 2013; Accepted 5 February 2013
    Keywords: Superalloys
    ISSN: 0925-8388
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10/22/2013, Vol.110(43), pp.17588-17593
    Description: CDC5 is a MYB-related protein that exists in plants, animals, and fungi. In Arabidopsis, CDC5 regulates both growth and immunity through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that CDC5 from Arabidopsis positively regulates the accumulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), which control many biological processes including development and adaptations to environments in plants. CDC5 interacts with both the promoters of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR) and the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. As a consequence, lack of CDC5 reduces the occupancy of polymerase II at MIR promoters, as well as MIR promoter activities. In addition, CDC5 is associated with the DICER-LIKE1 complex, which generates miRNAs from their primary transcripts and is required for efficient miRNA production. These results suggest that CDC5 may have dual roles in miRNA biogenesis: functioning as a positive transcription factor of MIR and/or acting as a component of the DICER-LIKE1 complex to enhance primary miRNA processing. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1310644110
    Keywords: Dna Binding Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Post-translational Modifications -- Research ; Transcription (Genetics) -- Research ; Microrna -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, September 2015, Vol.51, pp.S510-S510
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)31413-7 Byline: M. Xie, C. He, J. Huang, Q. Lin
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science, 08/19/2016, Vol.353(6301), pp.790-794
    Description: Measuring consumption and wealth remotelyNighttime lighting is a rough proxy for economic wealth, and nighttime maps of the world show that many developing countries are sparsely illuminated. Jean et al. combined nighttime maps with high-resolution daytime satellite images (see the Perspective by Blumenstock). With a bit of machine-learning wizardry, the combined images can be converted into accurate estimates of household consumption and assets, both of which are hard to measure in poorer countries. Furthermore, the night- and day-time data are publicly available and nonproprietary.Science, this issue p. 790; see also p. 753 Reliable data on economic livelihoods remain scarce in the developing world, hampering efforts to study these outcomes and to design policies that improve them. Here we demonstrate an accurate, inexpensive, and scalable method for estimating consumption expenditure and asset wealth from high-resolution satellite imagery. Using survey and satellite data from five African countries-Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, and Rwanda-we show how a convolutional neural network can be trained to identify image features that can explain up to 75% of the variation in local-level economic outcomes. Our method, which requires only publicly available data, could transform efforts to track and target poverty in developing countries. It also demonstrates how powerful machine learning techniques can be applied in a setting with limited training data, suggesting broad potential application across many scientific domains.
    Keywords: Neural Networks ; Night ; Economics ; Consumption ; Machine Learning ; Maps ; Developing Countries ; Satellite Imagery ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; (An);
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2015, Vol.47(5S Suppl 1), pp.630-630
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 07/31/2012, Vol.109(31), pp.12817-12821
    Description: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression in plants and animals. The biogenesis of miRNAs is precisely controlled to secure normal development of organisms. Here we report that TOUGH (TGH) is a component of the DCL1-HYL1-SERRATE complex that processes primary transcripts of miRNAs [i.e., primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs)] into miRNAs in Arabidopsis. Lack of TGH impairs multiple DCL activities in Vitro and reduces the accumulation of miRNAs and siRNAs in vivo. TGH is an RNA-binding protein, binds pri-miRNAs and precursor miRNAs in vivo, and contributes to pri-miRNA-HYL1 interaction. These results indicate that TGH might regulate abundance of miRNAs through promoting DCL1 cleavage efficiency and/or recruitment of pri-miRNAs. doi/10.1073/pnas.1204915109
    Keywords: Microrna -- Physiological Aspects ; Microrna -- Health Aspects ; Genetic Regulation -- Research ; Binding Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Binding Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Arabidopsis -- Physiological Aspects ; Arabidopsis -- Genetic Aspects ; Arabidopsis -- Health Aspects ; Plant Genetics -- Research;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 04/29/2014, Vol.111(17), pp.6365-6370
    Description: In plants, methylation catalyzed by HEN1 (small RNA methyl transferase) prevents microRNAs (miRNAs) from degradation triggered by uridylation. How methylation antagonizes uridylation of miRNAs in vivo is not well understood. In addition, 5' RNA fragments (5' fragments) produced by miRNA-mediated RNA cleavage can be uridylated in plants and animals. However, the biological significance of this modification is unknown, and enzymes uridylating 5' fragments remain to be identified. Here, we report that in Arabidopsis, HEN1 suppressor 1 (HESO1, a miRNA nucleotidyl transferase) uridylates 5' fragments to trigger their degradation. We also show that Argonaute 1 (AGO1), the effector protein of miRNAs, interacts with HESO1 through its Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille and PIWI domains, which bind the 3' end of miRNA and cleave the target mRNAs, respectively. Furthermore, HESO1 is able to uridylate AGO1-bound miRNAs in vitro. miRNA uridylation in vivo requires a functional AGO1 in hen1, in which miRNA methylation is impaired, demonstrating that HESO1 can recognize its substrates in the AGO1 complex. On the basis of these results, we propose that methylation is required to protect miRNAs from AGO1-associated HESO1 activity that normally uridylates 5' fragments. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/ 10.1073/pnas.1405083111
    Keywords: Methylation -- Research ; Microrna -- Physiological Aspects ; Rna Sequencing -- Research ; Genetic Research;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 17 December 2012, Vol.31(1), pp.207-212
    Description: ► Influenza vaccine strains contain variant PB1 genes. ► Targeted mutagenesis of PR/8 PB1 can improve vaccine strain characteristics. ► Specific PB1 mutations enhance growth of poorly growing virus. ► Specific PB1 mutations increase protein yield in allantoic fluid at early time points. It is desirable for influenza vaccine virus strains to have phenotypes that include good growth and hemagglutinin (HA) protein yield. The quality of these characteristics varies among the vaccine viruses and is usually due to multigenic effects. Many influenza A virus vaccine viruses are made as reassortants of the high yield virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR/8) and a circulating seasonal virus. Co-infection of eggs with the two viruses, and selection of reassortants with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments from the seasonal virus, can result in viruses that contain a mixture of internal genes derived from both the high yield virus and the circulating virus. Segment 2 (PB1), which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, frequently cosegregates with the seasonal HA and NA segments. We asked whether mutations based on the seasonal PB1 genes could improve vaccine virus strains. Here we report that mutations to the PR/8 PB1 gene, based on differences observed between seasonal and PR/8 PB1 genes, accelerate egg and cell culture based replication for a reassortant virus containing HA and NA segments from the low yield A/Wyoming/03/2003 (H3N2) vaccine virus.
    Keywords: Influenza ; Vaccine ; Polymerase ; Protein Yield ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Production Economics, 2015, Vol.166, p.20(16)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.04.007 Byline: S.L. Lim, Michael B.C. Khoo, W.L. Teoh, M. Xie Abstract: The idea of varying the X chart's parameters has been explored extensively by many researchers. The variable sample size and sampling interval (VSSI) X chart is among the adaptive control charts which improves the diagnostic abilities of the standard X chart for a quick detection of small and moderate shifts in the process mean. The VSSI X chart is usually investigated under the assumption of known process parameters. In practice, process parameters are rarely known and they need to be estimated from an in-control historical Phase-I dataset. Therefore, in this paper, the Markov chain approach for the VSSI X chart with estimated parameters is developed to facilitate process monitoring in manufacturing and service industries. The performance of the VSSI X chart is examined and evaluated when process parameters are estimated and is compared with the case where process parameters are known. The new optimal design strategies for the VSSI X chart with estimated process parameters, for minimizing the out-of-control average time to signal and the average extra quadratic loss are developed so that the chart's optimization results and charting parameters can be compared with its known process parameters counterpart. By considering the number of Phase-I samples used by practitioners in manufacturing, new optimal charting parameters computed from the proposed optimal design procedures are provided. By taking into account of the impact of parameter estimation on the properties of a control chart, the quality and productivity of manufacturing processes in an industry will be enhanced. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia (b) Department of Physical and Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia (c) Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Article History: Received 23 December 2013; Accepted 8 April 2015
    Keywords: Markov Processes
    ISSN: 0925-5273
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 2014, Vol. 115(16), p. 163504
    Description: We study the structural and free-charge carrier properties of two sets of InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy doped with different Mg concentrations from 1x1018 cm-3 to 3.9x1021 cm-3. We determine the effect of Mg doping on surface morphology, lattice parameters, structural characteristics and carrier properties. We show that infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used to evidence successful p-type doping in InN, which is an important issue in InN. High resolution X-ray diffraction, combined with atomic force microscopy measurements reveals a drastic decrease in structural quality of the film for Mg concentrations above 1020 cm-3, accompanied with a significant increase in surface roughness. In addition, a decrease of the c-lattice parameter and an increase of the a-lattice parameter are found with increasing Mg concentration. Different contributions to the strain are discussed and it is suggested that the incorporation of Mg leads to a change of growth mode and generation of tensile growth strain. At high Mg concentrations zinc-blende InN inclusions appear which are suggested to originate from higher densities of stacking faults. Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis shows a reduced LPP-coupling, manifested as a characteristic dip in the IRSE data, and qualitatively different broadening behavior for Mg concentrations between 1.1x1018 cm−3 and 2.9x1019 cm−3 indicate the existence of a p-type conducting bulk InN layer for these Mg concentrations.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Naturvetenskap
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 10897550
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