Biochemistry, 25 March 2014, Vol.53(11), pp.1768-78
Numerous kinetic, structural, and theoretical studies have established that DNA polymerases adjust their domain structures to enclose nucleotides in their active sites and then rearrange critical active site residues and substrates for catalysis, with the latter conformational change acting to kinetically limit the correct nucleotide incorporation rate. Additionally, structural studies have revealed a large conformational change between the apoprotein and the DNA-protein binary state for Y-family DNA polymerases. In previous studies [Xu, C., Maxwell, B. A., Brown, J. A., Zhang, L., and Suo, Z. (2009) PLoS Biol. 7, e1000225], a real-time Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) method was developed to monitor the global conformational transitions of DNA polymerase IV from Sulfolobus solfataricus (Dpo4), a prototype Y-family enzyme, during nucleotide binding and incorporation by measuring changes in distance between locations on the enzyme and the DNA substrate. To elucidate further details of the conformational transitions of Dpo4 during substrate binding and catalysis, in this study, the real-time FRET technique was used to monitor changes in distance between various pairs of locations in the protein itself. In addition to providing new insight into the conformational changes as revealed in previous studies, the results here show that the previously described conformational change between the apo and DNA-bound states of Dpo4 occurs in a mechanistic step distinct from initial formation or dissociation of the binary complex of Dpo4 and DNA.
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Protein Conformation ; DNA Polymerase Beta -- Chemistry ; Sulfolobus Solfataricus -- Enzymology
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