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  • 1
    In: Internal Medicine Journal, September 2016, Vol.46, pp.11-12
    Description: Byline: Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Toh Jia Ying, Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Yap Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Lynette Pei-chi Shek, Chong Mary F, Bee Wah Lee ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Food Hypersensitivity;
    ISSN: 1444-0903
    E-ISSN: 1445-5994
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Appetite, 01 June 2017, Vol.113, pp.100-105
    Description: The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE〈0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ≥ 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = −0.14), slowness in eating (r = −0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = −0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p 〈 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.
    Keywords: Children'S Eating Behavior Questionnaire ; Confirmatory Factor Analysis ; Exploratory Factor Analysis ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0195-6663
    E-ISSN: 1095-8304
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, August 2016, Vol.104(2), pp.380-8
    Description: The influence of circadian feeding patterns on weight outcomes has been shown in animal and human studies but not in very young children. We aimed to examine the association of infant circadian feeding patterns at 12 mo of age with subsequent growth and weight status after 1 y. Mothers from a Singapore birth cohort (n = 349) reported the food given to their infants and the feeding time at 12 mo of age. Predominantly daytime (pDT) (0700-1859; n = 282) and predominantly nighttime (pNT) (1900-0659; n = 67) feeding infants were defined by whether daytime energy intake was 〉50% or 〈50% of total energy intake as assessed with the use of a 24-h recall. Body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) were computed with the use of the WHO Child Growth Standards 2006 to determine changes in BAZs from 12 to 24 mo of age and weight status at 24 mo of age. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Compared with pDT feeding, pNT feeding was associated with a higher BAZ gain from 12 to 24 mo of age (adjusted β = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.65; P = 0.006) and increased risk of becoming overweight at 24 mo of age (adjusted OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.11, 6.97; P = 0.029) with adjustments for maternal age, education, ethnicity, monthly household income, parity, infant BAZ at 12 mo of age, feeding mode in the first 6 mo of life, and total daily energy intake. Our study suggests that the role of the daily distribution of energy consumption in weight regulation begins in infancy. The feeding of infants predominantly during nighttime hours was associated with adiposity gain and risk of overweight in early childhood. The inclusion of advice on the appropriate feeding time may be considered when implementing strategies to combat childhood obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
    Keywords: Adiposity ; Circadian ; Feeding ; Infant ; Nighttime ; Overweight ; Body Mass Index ; Circadian Rhythm ; Feeding Behavior ; Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Weight Gain ; Energy Intake -- Physiology ; Pediatric Obesity -- Etiology
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, 01 August 2018, Vol.192, pp.82-89
    Description: Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been linked to obesity in adults and children. This study examined the stability of EAH in children between 4.5 and 6 years old, and associations with energy intake and portion selection, as well as cross-sectional and prospective associations with body composition. The participants were 158 boys and girls from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort. At ages 4.5 and 6 years old children were provided lunch ad libitum, and immediately afterwards were exposed to palatable snacks to measure energy intake in the absence of hunger. At age 6 children completed an additional computer-based task to measure ideal portion size, where they selected pictures of the portions they would like to eat across eight foods. Measures of anthropometry (height/weight/skinfolds) were collected at both ages. Children who consumed energy during the EAH task at age 4.5 years were 3 times more likely to also do so at age 6 years. Children with high EAH intakes at age 4.5 years had high EAH intakes at age 6, highlighting stability of this behaviour over time. Energy consumed at lunch was unrelated to energy consumed during the EAH task, but children who ate in the absence of hunger cumulatively consumed more energy over lunch and the EAH task. Children who showed EAH tended to select larger ideal portions of foods during the computer task. EAH was not associated with measures of body composition. EAH is a stable behavioural risk factor for increased energy intake, but was not associated with body composition in this cohort. The majority of children ate in the absence of hunger, suggesting that interventions aimed at reducing responsiveness to external food cues could help to reduce energy intakes. Trial Registry Number: ; /.
    Keywords: Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    E-ISSN: 1873-507X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Physiology and Behavior, 2018, Vol.192, pp.82-89
    Description: Background/objectives: Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been linked to obesity in adults and children. This study examined the stability of EAH in children between 4.5 and 6 years old, and associations with energy intake and portion selection, as well as cross-sectional and prospective associations...
    Keywords: Experimental And Cognitive Psychology ; Behavioral Neuroscience ; D_Article_Not_Yet_Freely_Accessible
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, 01 July 2017, Vol.176, pp.107-116
    Description: Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N = 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded lunch at 4.5 years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r = 0.55, p 〈 0.001), fewer chews per gram (r = − 0.71, p 〈 0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r = − 0.25, p 〈 0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r = 0.61, p 〈 0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p 〈 0.01) and higher energy intakes (p 〈 0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p 〈 0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an ‘obesogenic eating style’ that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight. : ; .
    Keywords: Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    E-ISSN: 1873-507X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Appetite, 01 July 2018, Vol.126, pp.8-15
    Description: Oral processing behaviours associated with faster eating rates have been consistently linked to increased energy intakes, but little is known about their links to children's appetitive traits. This study used the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to explore cross-sectional and prospective associations between parent-reported appetitive traits and observed oral processing behaviours. Participants were 195 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, who participated in a video-recorded lunch at 4.5 (Time 1) and 6 years (Time 2). Their mothers completed the CEBQ around the same time points. Children's bites, chews and swallows were coded, and used to calculate their eating rate, bite size, chews per bite, chew rate, oral exposure time and oral exposure per bite. At Time 1, children with higher scores in slowness in eating had lower eating and chew rates. At Time 2, higher scores for food enjoyment and lower for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and food fussiness were linked with higher eating rates and greater energy intakes (r 〉 0.16, p 〈 0.05). Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were moderated by BMI and only present among children with higher BMI. Faster eating rates mediated the associations between greater food enjoyment, lower slowness in eating, lower food fussiness and higher intakes of energy. Children with higher slowness in eating scores had lower increases in eating rates over time, and children with higher BMI who had greater food enjoyment and food responsiveness scores had greater increases in eating rates over time. The findings suggest that oral processing behaviours linked with increased obesity risk may be underpinned by appetitive traits and may be one of the behavioural pathways through which these appetitive traits influence energy intakes.
    Keywords: Eating Behaviours ; Oral Processing ; Appetitive Traits ; Cebq ; Eating Rates ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0195-6663
    E-ISSN: 1095-8304
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  • 8
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2017, Vol.117(12), pp.1702-1710
    Description: Abstract Early life nutrition and feeding practices are important modifiable determinants of subsequent obesity, yet little is known about the circadian feeding pattern of 12-month-old infants. We aimed to describe the 24-h feeding patterns of 12-month-old infants and examine their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Mothers from a prospective birth cohort study ( n 431) reported dietary intakes of their 12-month-old infants and respective feeding times using 24-h dietary recall. Based on their feeding times, infants were classified into post-midnight (00.00–05.59 hours) and pre-midnight (06.00–23.59 hours) feeders. Mean daily energy intake was 3234 ( sd 950) kJ (773 ( sd 227) kcal), comprising 51·8 ( sd 7·8) % carbohydrate, 33·9 ( sd 7·2) % fat and 14·4 ( sd 3·2) % protein. Mean hourly energy intake and proportion of infants fed were lower during post-midnight than pre-midnight hours. There were 251 (58·2 %) pre-midnight and 180 (41·8 %) post-midnight feeders. Post-midnight feeders consumed higher daily energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes than pre-midnight feeders (all P 〈0·001). The difference in energy intake originated from energy content consumed during the post-midnight period. Majority ( n 173) of post-midnight feeders consumed formula milk during the post-midnight period. Using multivariate logistic regression with confounder adjustment, exclusively breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life was negatively associated with post-midnight feeding at 12 months (adjusted OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·82). This study provides new insights into the circadian pattern of energy intake during infancy. Our findings indicated that the timing of feeding at 12 months was associated with daily energy and macronutrient intakes, and feeding mode during early infancy.
    Keywords: Full Papers; Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Feeding Patterns; Circadian Feeding; Midnight Feeding; Daily Energy Intake; Infancy
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(9), p.e0203045
    Description: BACKGROUND:In Asia, little is known about how maternal feeding practices are associated with dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) in preschoolers. OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationships between maternal feeding practices with dietary intakes and BMI in preschoolers in Asia using cross-sectional analysis in the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. PARTICIPANT SETTINGS:Mothers (n = 511) who completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) when children were 5 years old. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Associations between 12 maternal feeding practices (mean scores divided into tertiles) and children's dietary intakes of seven food groups and BMI z-scores were examined using the general linear regression model. Weight and height of the child were measured, and dietary intakes derived from the FFQ. RESULTS:Compared to those in the low tertile, mothers in the high tertile of modelling healthy food intakes had children with higher intakes of vegetables[+20.0g/day (95%CI:11.6,29.5)] and wholegrains[+ 20.9g/day (9.67,31.1)] but lower intakes of sweet snacks[-10.1g/day (-16.3,-4.94)] and fast-foods[-5.84g/day (-10.2,-1.48)]. Conversely, children of mothers in the high tertile for allowing child control (lack of parental control) had lower intake of vegetables[-15.2g/day (-26.6,-5.21)] and wholegrains[-13.6g/day (-22.9,-5.27)], but higher intakes of sweet snacks[+13.7g/day (7.7, 19.8)] and fast-foods[+6.63g/day (3.55,9.72)]. In relation to BMI at 5 years, food restrictions for weight was associated with higher BMI z-scores [0.86SD (0.61,1.21)], while use of pressure was associated with lower BMI z-scores[-0.49SD(-0.78,-0.21)]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Modelling healthy food intakes by mothers was the key feeding practice associated with higher intakes of healthy foods and lower intakes of discretionary foods. The converse was true for allowing child control. Only food restrictions for weight and use of pressure were associated with BMI z-scores.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physiology and Behavior, 2017, Vol.176, pp.107-116
    Description: Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p〈0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p〈0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p〈0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p〈0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p〈0.01) and higher energy intakes (p〈0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p〈0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT01174875; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
    Keywords: Abdomen/Diagnostic Imaging ; Adiposity ; Anthropometry ; Body Mass Index ; Child, Preschool ; Energy Intake/Physiology ; Feeding Behavior/Physiology ; Female ; Food Preferences/Psychology ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Obesity/Physiopathology ; Parent-Child Relations ; Pediatric Obesity/Psychology ; Time Factors ; Touch Perception
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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