Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.212(1), pp.309-317
Linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) is being considered as a soil amendment to reduce seepage and infiltration in unlined earthen canals. While polyacrylamides have been extensively used for potable water treatment, dewatering sewage sludge, coal and mine processing, paper manufacturing, and agriculture, little is known about its ecological impact to aquatic ecosystems. Acute toxicity (LC 50 , 24 and 48 h) and chronic exposure tests (limited and continuous exposures) were conducted on Daphnia magna . In the chronic limited exposure experiments, Daphnia were exposed to LA-PAM for only 24 h whereas for the chronic continuous exposure the concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 100 mg/L were tested and the endpoints of growth, onset to reproduction, fecundity, and mortality were measured for the duration of 32 days. There was no significant difference among the chronic, limitedly exposed organisms. The acute toxicity for LA-PAM was measured at 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/L. The acute test showed that the LC 50 for LA-PAM was at 152 mg/L. Overall in the chronic, continuous exposure test, D. magna was negatively impacted by LA-PAM at levels as low as 1 mg/L. Growth was reduced by 37% and 89% at 1 and 100 mg/L, respectively. Fecundity and onset to reproduction was impaired at 10 and 100 mg/L. Kinematic viscosity ranged from 0.98 cSt at 1 mg/L to 2.9 at 100 mg/L. At these levels, mechanical and physiological impairments due to the viscous properties of LA-PAM are the proposed mechanisms of reduction in the life history traits of D. magna .
LA-PAM ; Polymer ; physiology ; Growth rate and toxicity ; Viscosity ; Canal sealant
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