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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 2017, Vol.13(4), p.e1006312
    Description: The invasion of epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a very tightly regulated process. Signaling cascades triggered by different environmental and physiological signals converge to control HilD, an AraC regulator that coordinates the expression of several virulence...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Genetics ; Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS genetics, June 2018, Vol.14(6), pp.e1007401
    Description: Invasion of epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica requires expression of genes located in the pathogenicity island I (SPI-1). The expression of SPI-1 genes is very tightly regulated and activated only under specific conditions. Most studies have focused on the regulatory pathways that induce SPI-1 expression. Here, we describe a new regulatory circuit involving CRP-cAMP, a widely established metabolic regulator, in silencing of SPI-1 genes under non-permissive conditions. In CRP-cAMP-deficient strains we detected a strong upregulation of SPI-1 genes in the mid-logarithmic growth phase. Genetic analyses revealed that CRP-cAMP modulates the level of HilD, the master regulator of Salmonella invasion. This regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level and requires the presence of a newly identified regulatory motif within the hilD 3'UTR. We further demonstrate that in Salmonella the Hfq-dependent sRNA Spot 42 is under the transcriptional repression of CRP-cAMP and, when this transcriptional repression is relieved, Spot 42 exerts a positive effect on hilD expression. In vivo and in vitro assays indicate that Spot 42 targets, through its unstructured region III, the 3'UTR of the hilD transcript. Together, our results highlight the biological relevance of the hilD 3'UTR as a hub for post-transcriptional control of Salmonella invasion gene expression.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Cyclic Amp -- Metabolism ; Cyclic Amp Receptor Protein -- Metabolism ; Genomic Islands -- Genetics ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Pathogenicity ; Transcription Factors -- Genetics
    ISSN: 15537390
    E-ISSN: 1553-7404
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, 15 September 2017, Vol.199(18)
    Description: The second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is almost ubiquitous among bacteria as are the c-di-GMP turnover proteins, which mediate the transition between motility and sessility. EAL domain proteins have been characterized as c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases. While most EAL domain proteins contain additional, usually N-terminal, domains, there is a distinct family of proteins with stand-alone EAL domains, exemplified by serovar Typhimurium proteins STM3611 (YhjH/PdeH), a c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and the enzymatically inactive STM1344 (YdiV/CdgR) and STM1697, which regulate bacterial motility through interaction with the flagellar master regulator, FlhDC. We have analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of EAL-only proteins and their potential functions. Genes encoding EAL-only proteins were found in various bacterial phyla, although most of them were seen in proteobacteria, particularly enterobacteria. Based on the conservation of the active site residues, nearly all stand-alone EAL domains encoded by genomes from phyla other than proteobacteria appear to represent functional phosphodiesterases. Within enterobacteria, EAL-only proteins were found to cluster either with YhjH or with one of the subfamilies of YdiV-related proteins. EAL-only proteins from , , and were tested for their ability to regulate swimming and swarming motility and formation of the red, dry, and rough (rdar) biofilm morphotype. In these tests, YhjH-related proteins S4210, KPN_01159, KPN_03274, and YE4063 displayed properties typical of enzymatically active phosphodiesterases, whereas S1641 and YE1324 behaved like members of the YdiV/STM1697 subfamily, with protein YE1324 shown to downregulate motility in its native host. Of two closely related EAL-only proteins, YE2225 is an active phosphodiesterase, while YE1324 appears to interact with FlhD. These results suggest that in FlhDC-harboring beta- and gammaproteobacteria, some EAL-only proteins evolved to become catalytically inactive and regulate motility and biofilm formation by interacting with FlhDC. The EAL domain superfamily consists mainly of proteins with cyclic dimeric GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity, but individual domains have been classified in three classes according to their functions and conserved amino acid signatures. Proteins that consist solely of stand-alone EAL domains cannot rely on other domains to form catalytically active dimers, and most of them fall into one of two distinct classes: catalytically active phosphodiesterases with well-conserved residues of the active site and the dimerization loop, and catalytically inactive YdiV/CdgR-like proteins that regulate bacterial motility by binding to the flagellar master regulator, FlhDC, and are found primarily in enterobacteria. The presence of apparently inactive EAL-only proteins in the bacteria that do not express FlhD suggests the existence of additional EAL interaction partners.
    Keywords: Flhdc ; Cyclic Di-Gmp Phosphodiesterase ; Flagellar Regulon ; Motility ; Protein-Protein Interaction ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Locomotion ; Biofilms -- Growth & Development ; Cyclic Gmp -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Enterobacteriaceae -- Genetics ; Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Genetics, 2019, Vol.65(1), pp.127-131
    Description: Post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria plays a major role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to the changing conditions encountered in the environment. In bacteria, most of the regulation at the level of mRNA seems to be targeting the 5′untranslated regions where accessibility to the ribosome-binding site can be modulated to alter gene expression. In recent years, the role of 3′untranslated regions has gained attention also as a site for post-transcriptional regulation. In addition to be a source of trans-encoded small RNAs, the 3′untranslated regions can be targets to modulate gene expression. Taking recent findings in the post-transcriptional regulation of the hilD gene, encoding for the main regulator of virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, we highlight the role of 3′untranslated regions as targets of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by small RNAs and discuss the implications of transcriptional elongation in the 3′UTR-mediated regulation in bacteria.
    Keywords: Post-transcriptional regulation ; 3′UTR ; Hfq ; sRNA ; ProQ ; Transcription elongation
    ISSN: 0172-8083
    E-ISSN: 1432-0983
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular microbiology, December 2013, Vol.90(6), pp.1216-32
    Description: The ubiquitous second messenger c-di-GMP regulates the switching of bacterial lifestyles from motility to sessility and acute to chronic virulence to adjust bacterial fitness to altered environmental conditions. Conventionally, EAL proteins being c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases promote motility and acute virulence phenotypes such as invasion into epithelial cells and inhibit biofilm formation. We report here that in contradiction, the EAL-like protein STM1697 of Salmonella typhimurium suppresses motility, invasion into HT-29 epithelial cell line and secretion of the type three secretion system 1 effector protein SipA, whereas it promotes rdar biofilm formation and CsgD expression. STM1697 can, however, functionally replace the EAL-like protein STM1344 and vice versa, whereby both proteins neither degrade nor bind c-di-GMP. Like STM1344, STM1697 suppresses the transcription of class 2 and class 3 flagella regulon genes by binding to FlhD, a component of the master regulator of the flagella regulon FlhD4 C2 and act additively under numerous conditions. Interestingly, the interaction interface of STM1697 with FlhD2 is distinct from its paralogue STM1344. We predict that the stand alone EAL domain proteins STM1697 and STM1344 belong to a subclass of EAL domain proteins in S. typhimurium, which are all involved in motility, biofilm and virulence regulation through interaction with proteins that regulate flagella function.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Biofilms -- Growth & Development ; Flagella -- Physiology ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Pathogenicity
    ISSN: 0950382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: The regulation of the expression of virulence genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intensively studied feature of Salmonella lifestyle. How Salmonella integrates environmental signals to activate virulence-related genes within the host has been explored. The genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island I (SPI-1) required for the invasion of epithelial cells are well characterized, and many regulators involved in the activation of SPI-1 genes have been described. However, little is known about mechanism involved in the repression of SPI-1 under conditions were Salmonella does not require the expression of virulence-related genes. The expression of SPI-1 encoded genes have been reported to be a burden for Salmonella physiology and therefore mechanism to control shut down of SPI-1 under non permissive conditions might play a crucial role in Salmonella physiology. Here we describe that at exponential phase, CRP-cAMP, which acts as an activator at stationary phase, represses the expression of SPI-1 genes. The overall objective of this thesis was to characterize how CRP-cAMP silences SPI-1 expression under non-permissive conditions and to describe the molecular mechanism behind this phenotypic observation. In this thesis we i) define the target gene for the CRP-mediated regulation of SPI-1 ii) elucidate at which level of regulation CRP-cAMP modulates the expression of the SPI-1 genes master regulator hilD iii) characterize the involvement of CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA in hilD regulation iv) characterize the interaction of the CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA Spot 42 with the hilD 3’UTR region to regulate SPI-1 and v) explore the role of CRP-cAMP in the modulation of the SPI-1 repressor CsrA through the regulation of the long non-coding RNA csrB and csrC. CRP-cAMP represses hilA expression at exponential phase (non-permissive conditions for SPI-1 expression) and acts as an activator at stationary phase (permissive conditions for SPI-1 expression). CRP-cAMP mediated repression of hilA causes a concomitant attenuation in the expression level of SPI-1 encoded effector proteins. The regulation of SPI-1 during logarithmic growth phase occurs upstream of HilA by repressing hilD, hilC and rtsA expression and is mediated by the regulation of hilD expression at the post transcriptional level through the hilD 3’UTR. CRP-cAMP mediated regulation of hilD requires, in addition to the hilD 3’UTR, the sRNA chaperone Hfq and the major endonuclease RNAse E. CRP-cAMP represses the expression of the sRNA Spot 42 at exponential phase. We show that Spot 42 positively regulates hilD expression at exponential growth phase and requires of the presence of the hilD 3’UTR, the sRNA chaperone Hfq and the major endonuclease RNAse E. Interestingly, Spot 42 and the hilD 3’UTR region physically bind to Hfq. Spot 42 physically interacts with the last 150 nt of the hilD 3’UTR and unstructured region III of Spot 42 is required for the regulation of hilD. CRP-cAMP represses csrC but not csrB expression at exponential phase to regulate the expression of hilD. Remarkably, the CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA Spot 42 positively regulates the expression of csrC.
    Description: La regulación de la expresión de genes de virulencia en Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium es una característica intensamente estudiada en Salmonella. La forma en que Salmonella integra señales ambientales para activar los genes relacionados con la virulencia dentro del huésped ha sido explorada. Los genes codificados en la isla de patogenicidad I de Salmonella (SPI-1) son necesarios para la invasión de células epiteliales, están bien caracterizados y se han descrito muchos reguladores implicados en su activación. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre el mecanismo implicado en la represión de SPI-1 en condiciones en las que Salmonella no requiere la expresión de genes relacionados con la virulencia. Es sabido que la expresión de genes codificados por SPI-1 son una carga para la fisiología de Salmonella y por lo tanto el mecanismo para controlar la represión de SPI-1 en condiciones no permisivas podría desempeñar un papel crucial en la fisiología de Salmonella. Aquí se describe que en fase exponencial, CRP-cAMP, que actúa como un activador en fase estacionaria, reprime la expresión de los genes SPI-1. El objetivo general de esta tesis fue caracterizar cómo el CRP-cAMP silencia la expresión de SPI-1 en condiciones no permisivas y describir el mecanismo molecular detrás de esta observación fenotípica. El CRP-cAMP reprime la expresión de hilA en la fase exponencial (condiciones no permisivas para la expresión de SPI-1) y actúa como un activador en fase estacionaria (condiciones permisivas para la expresión de SPI-1). La represión mediada por CRP-cAMP de hilA provoca una atenuación concomitante en el nivel de expresión de proteínas efectoras codificadas por SPI-1. La regulación de SPI-1 durante la fase de crecimiento logarítmico se produce aguas arriba de HilA mediante la represión hilD, hilC y rtsA expresión y está mediada por la regulación de hilD a nivel post transcripcional a través de la hilD 3'UTR. La regulación mediada por CRP-cAMP de hilD requiere, además de la hilD 3'UTR, la chaperona Hfq y la endonucleasa RNAsa E. CRP-cAMP reprime la expresión del sRNA Spot 42 en la fase exponencial. Mostramos que Spot 42 regula positivamente la expresión hilD en la fase de crecimiento exponencial, Spot 42 interacciona físicamente con los últimos 150 nt de la hilD 3'UTR.
    Keywords: Regulació Genètica ; Regulación Genética ; Genetic Regulation ; Bacteris Patògens ; Bacterias Patógenas ; Pathogenic Bacteria ; Ciències Experimentals I Matemàtiques ; 575
    Source: TDX (Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: [eng] The regulation of the expression of virulence genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intensively studied feature of Salmonella lifestyle. How Salmonella integrates environmental signals to activate virulence-related genes within the host has been explored. The genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island I (SPI-1) required for the invasion of epithelial cells are well characterized, and many regulators involved in the activation of SPI-1 genes have been described. However, little is known about mechanism involved in the repression of SPI-1 under conditions were Salmonella does not require the expression of virulence-related genes. The expression of SPI-1 encoded genes have been reported to be a burden for Salmonella physiology and therefore mechanism to control shut down of SPI-1 under non permissive conditions might play a crucial role in Salmonella physiology. Here we describe that at exponential phase, CRP-cAMP, which acts as an activator at stationary phase, represses the expression of SPI-1 genes. The overall objective of this thesis was to characterize how CRP-cAMP silences SPI-1 expression under non-permissive conditions and to describe the molecular mechanism behind this phenotypic observation. In this thesis we i) define the target gene for the CRP-mediated regulation of SPI-1 ii) elucidate at which level of regulation CRP-cAMP modulates the expression of the SPI-1 genes master regulator hilD iii) characterize the involvement of CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA in hilD regulation iv) characterize the interaction of the CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA Spot 42 with the hilD 3’UTR region to regulate SPI-1 and v) explore the role of CRP-cAMP in the modulation of the SPI-1 repressor CsrA through the regulation of the long non-coding RNA csrB and csrC. CRP-cAMP represses hilA expression at exponential phase (non-permissive conditions for SPI-1 expression) and acts as an activator at stationary phase (permissive conditions for SPI-1 expression). CRP-cAMP mediated repression of hilA causes a concomitant attenuation in the expression level of SPI-1 encoded effector proteins. The regulation of SPI-1 during logarithmic growth phase occurs upstream of HilA by repressing hilD, hilC and rtsA expression and is mediated by the regulation of hilD expression at the post transcriptional level through the hilD 3’UTR. CRP-cAMP mediated regulation of hilD requires, in addition to the hilD 3’UTR, the sRNA chaperone Hfq and the major endonuclease RNAse E. CRP-cAMP represses the expression of the sRNA Spot 42 at exponential phase. We show that Spot 42 positively regulates hilD expression at exponential growth phase and requires of the presence of the hilD 3’UTR, the sRNA chaperone Hfq and the major endonuclease RNAse E. Interestingly, Spot 42 and the hilD 3’UTR region physically bind to Hfq. Spot 42 physically interacts with the last 150 nt of the hilD 3’UTR and unstructured region III of Spot 42 is required for the regulation of hilD. CRP-cAMP represses csrC but not csrB expression at exponential phase to regulate the expression of hilD. Remarkably, the CRP-cAMP dependent sRNA Spot 42 positively regulates the expression of csrC.
    Description: [spa] La regulación de la expresión de genes de virulencia en Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium es una característica intensamente estudiada en Salmonella. La forma en que Salmonella integra señales ambientales para activar los genes relacionados con la virulencia dentro del huésped ha sido explorada. Los genes codificados en la isla de patogenicidad I de Salmonella (SPI-1) son necesarios para la invasión de células epiteliales, están bien caracterizados y se han descrito muchos reguladores implicados en su activación. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre el mecanismo implicado en la represión de SPI-1 en condiciones en las que Salmonella no requiere la expresión de genes relacionados con la virulencia. Es sabido que la expresión de genes codificados por SPI-1 son una carga para la fisiología de Salmonella y por lo tanto el mecanismo para controlar la represión de SPI-1 en condiciones no permisivas podría desempeñar un papel crucial en la fisiología de Salmonella. Aquí se describe que en fase exponencial, CRP-cAMP, que actúa como un activador en fase estacionaria, reprime la expresión de los genes SPI-1. El objetivo general de esta tesis fue caracterizar cómo el CRP-cAMP silencia la expresión de SPI-1 en condiciones no permisivas y describir el mecanismo molecular detrás de esta observación fenotípica. El CRP-cAMP reprime la expresión de hilA en la fase exponencial (condiciones no permisivas para la expresión de SPI-1) y actúa como un activador en fase estacionaria (condiciones permisivas para la expresión de SPI-1). La represión mediada por CRP-cAMP de hilA provoca una atenuación concomitante en el nivel de expresión de proteínas efectoras codificadas por SPI-1. La regulación de SPI-1 durante la fase de crecimiento logarítmico se produce aguas arriba de HilA mediante la represión hilD, hilC y rtsA expresión y está mediada por la regulación de hilD a nivel post transcripcional a través de la hilD 3'UTR. La regulación mediada por CRP-cAMP de hilD requiere, además de la hilD 3'UTR, la chaperona Hfq y la endonucleasa RNAsa E. CRP-cAMP reprime la expresión del sRNA Spot 42 en la fase exponencial. Mostramos que Spot 42 regula positivamente la expresión hilD en la fase de crecimiento exponencial, Spot 42 interacciona físicamente con los últimos 150 nt de la hilD 3'UTR.
    Keywords: Regulació Genètica ; Bacteris Patògens ; Genetic Regulation ; Pathogenic Bacteria
    Source: Universitat de Barcelona
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