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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Global Change Biology, 01 January 2010, Vol.16, pp.416-426
    Description: It is estimated that in excess of 50% of the soil carbon stock is found in the subsoil (below 20–30 cm). Despite this very few studies have paid attention to the subsoil. Although surface and subsurface horizons differ in pedological, environmental...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ecology, Environment ; Meteorology & Climatology ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 09 September 2011, Vol.106, pp.5-21
    Description: he soil microbial biomass (SMB) is known to participate in key soil processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, its contribution to the isotopic composition of the SOM is not clear yet. Shifts in the 13C and 15N natural abundances of the SMB and SOM fractions...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Geology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 02 November 2009, Vol.157, pp.2985-2993
    Description: The biodegradation of nonextractable residues (NER) of pesticides in soil is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of NER ageing and fresh soil addition on the microbial communities responsible for their mineralisation. Soil containing either 15 or...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ecology, Environment ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2011, Vol. 77(20), p.7296
    Description: Combining lipid biomarker profiling with stable isotope probing (SIP) is a powerful technique for studying specific microbial populations responsible for the degradation of organic pollutants in various natural environments. However, the presence of other easily degradable substrates may induce significant physiological changes by altering both the rate of incorporation of the target compound into the biomass and the microbial lipid profiles. In order to test this hypothesis, Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterium, was incubated with [(13)C]2,4-D, [(13)C]glucose, or mixtures of both substrates alternatively labeled with (13)C. C. necator JMP134 exhibited a preferential use of 2,4-D over glucose. The isotopic analysis showed that glucose had only a small effect on the incorporation of the acetic chain of 2,4-D into the biomass (at days 2 and 3) and no effect on that of the benzenic ring. The addition of glucose did change the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. However, the overall FAME isotopic signature reflected that of the entire biomass. Compound-specific individual isotopic analyses of FAME composition showed that the (13)C-enriched FAME profiles were slightly or not affected when tracing the 2,4-D acetic chain or 2,4-D benzenic ring, respectively. This batch study is a necessary step for validating the use of lipid-based SIP methods in complex environments.
    Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid -- Metabolism ; Cupriavidus Necator -- Chemistry ; Fatty Acids -- Analysis ; Glucose -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 1098-5336
    ISSN: 10985336
    ISSN: 00992240
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  • 5
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2010, Vol.16(1), pp.416-426
    Description: It is estimated that in excess of 50% of the soil carbon stock is found in the subsoil (below 20–30 cm). Despite this very few studies have paid attention to the subsoil. Although surface and subsurface horizons differ in pedological, environmental and physicochemical features, which are all likely to affect the mechanisms and biological actors involved, models of carbon dynamics tend to assume that the underlying processes are identical in all horizons, but with lower gross fluxes in the subsurface. The aim of this study was to test this assumption by analysing factors governing organic matter decomposition in topsoil (from depths of 5–10 cm) and subsoil (from depths of 80–100 cm). To this end, we established incubations that lasted 51 days, in which factors that were thought to control organic matter mineralization were altered: oxygen concentration, soil structure and the energetic and nutritional status. At the end of the incubation period, the microbial biomass was measured and the community level physiological profiles established. The mineralization per unit organic carbon proved to be as important in the subsoil as it was in surface samples, in spite of lower carbon contents and different catabolic profiles. Differences in the treatment effects indicated that the controls on C dynamics were different in topsoil and subsoil: disrupting the structure of the subsoil caused a 75% increase in mineralization while the surface samples remained unaffected. On the other hand, a significant priming affect was found in the topsoil but not in the subsoil samples. Spatial heterogeneity in carbon content, respiration and microbial communities was greater in subsoil than in topsoil at the field scale. These data suggest greater attention should be paid to the subsoil if global C dynamics is to be fully understood.
    Keywords: C ; C Dynamics ; Microbial Community Structure ; Stable Isotopes ; Subsoil
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2017, Vol.598, pp.938-948
    Description: The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring.
    Keywords: Trace Elements ; Urban-Rural Gradient ; Soils ; Green Spaces ; Lawns ; Forests ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2015, Vol.88, pp.236-246
    Description: Soil organic matter (SOM) in arctic and boreal soils is the largest terrestrial reservoir of carbon. Increased SOM mineralisation under increased temperature has the potential to induce a massive release of CO . Precise parameterisation of the response of arctic soils to increased temperatures is therefore crucial for correctly simulating our future climate. Here, we investigated the temperature response of SOM mineralisation in eight arctic soil profiles of Norway, Svalbard and Russia. Samples were collected at two depths from both mineral and organic soils, which were affected or not by permafrost and were incubated for 91 days at 4, 8, 12, and 16 °C. Temperature response was investigated through two parameters derived from a simple exponential model: the intensity of mineralisation, α, and the temperature sensitivity, Q10. For each sample, SOM quality was investigated by C-NMR, whereas bacterial and fungal community structure was characterised by T-RFLP and ARISA fingerprints, respectively. When estimated from the whole incubation period, α proved to be higher in deep permafrost samples than in shallow active layer ones due to the presence transient flushes of mineralisation in deep permafrost affected soils. At the end of the incubation period, after mineralization flushes had passed, neither α nor Q10 (averaging 1.28 ± 0.07) seemed to be affected by soil type (organic vs mineral soil), site, depth or permafrost. SOM composition and microbial community structure on the contrary where affected by site and soil type. Our results suggest that deep samples of permafrost affected soil contain a small pool of fast cycling carbon, which is quickly depleted after thawing. Once the mineralization flush had passed, the temperature response of permafrost affected soil proved to be relatively homogenous among sample types, suggesting that the use of a single temperature sensitivity parameter in land surface models for SOM decomposition in permafrost-affected soils is justified.
    Keywords: Arctic Peat Soil ; Permafrost ; Mineralisation ; Temperature Sensitivity ; Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Microbial Communities ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2012, Vol.47, pp.149-157
    Description: Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the thermal flows occurring in systems with very high precision and may be used to quantify carbon (C) assimilation and resource-use efficiencies in soils. We determined the thermodynamic efficiency of soil microbial communities located in soils which had received contrasting long-term management regimes (53 y) with respect to organic matter and nitrogen (N) inputs, farmyard manure, sewage sludge, straw and calcium nitrate, calcium nitrate only, or ammonium sulphate. Two thermodynamic efficiency indices were considered: (i) total thermodynamic efficiency of soil microbial communities ( ), i.e. general heat production released following substrate addition, per unit heat energy input to the soil system, and (ii) a specific thermodynamic efficiency index of energy retained in the soil system ( ). The latter index provides quantitative data on how much C is assimilated and energy retained in the soil system. Further, we derived a ‘substrate-induced heat production’ (SIHP) index, which adjusts for size of the microbial biomass. Optimised concentrations of water or glucose plus water were added to the soil samples and resultant thermal signatures and C mineralisation were determined over a 48-h incubation period at 25 °C. The thermal signatures were further related to the microbial community profiles of the soils. The phenotypic structural and functional diversity profiles of the microbial communities in soils were assessed by phospholipid fatty acid and multi-substrate induced respiration methods at the start of the experiment, confirming significant differences between all five treatments in community composition and functional capabilities. Both the total and specific thermodynamic efficiency indices of the soil microbial communities exposed to long-term stress by heavy metal toxicity (sewage sludge) and low pH ((NH ) SO ) were significantly smaller in magnitude than those under the three conventional (i.e. Ca(NO ) , Straw + Ca(NO ) , farmyard manure) input regimes ( 〈 0.05). The SIHP index however, was highest in the treatments receiving long-term inorganic inputs, indicating more heat production per unit biomass, than that found in all three organic input regimes. These differences in efficiencies were reflected in both the phenotypic and functional profiles of the communities. These indices may provide quantification of C assimilation and resource-use efficiency under different land-use and management scenarios, and potentially allow evaluation of the role of soils in governing the terrestrial C balance by studying the fate and regulation of C in soil systems. ► Thermodynamic efficiencies of soil microbial communities were determined. ► Efficiencies were different following contrasting long-term soil managements. ► Stressed communities showed lower efficiencies compared with conventional regimes. ► Differences were mirrored in microbial community structure and functional profiles. ► Micro-calorimetry provides quantification of microbial C use efficiency in soils.
    Keywords: Long-Term Field Experiments ; Microcalorimetry ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Microbial Community Structure ; Thermodynamic Efficiency ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2009, Vol.41(1), pp.77-85
    Description: Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) is a powerful tool for analysing the fate of pesticides in soil. Together with FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters), it can help identify biodegradation pathways and recycling into the microbial biomass. The fate of ring-labelled C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4-D (C ) was determined in soil during a 6-month incubation. The distribution of C among the microbial biomass, the CO respired, the water, methanol and dichloromethane soluble fractions, and the residual non-extracted bulk soil was measured. Molecular analyses were carried out on the lipid and the non-extractable fractions. After 8 days, about half of the initial amount of C was mineralised; the other half remained in soil as non-extractable residues (NER). C continued to be mineralised, suggesting that NER were still bioavailable. Analysis of C -enriched FAME contained in the lipid fraction suggested that a succession of microbial populations was involved in 2,4-D biodegradation. This is possibly due to the change of 2,4-D availability. The C yield coefficient and degrader diversity evolved during the incubation, providing corroboratory evidence that different physiological groups were active during the incubation. The C-labelled microbial community was always less diverse than the total community, even at the end of the incubation, suggesting that the cross-feeding community is also a specific part of the total community. This work shows that molecular analysis of C-labelled pesticides is a useful tool for understanding both chemical and biological aspects of their fate in soil.
    Keywords: Pesticide ; Biodegradation ; Availability ; Microbial Structure ; 13c ; Fame ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    In: Ecology Letters, October 2015, Vol.18(10), pp.1040-1048
    Description: Artificial selection of individuals has been determinant in the elaboration of the Darwinian theory of natural selection. Nowadays, artificial selection of ecosystems has proven its efficiency and could contribute to a theory of natural selection at several organisation levels. Here, we were not interested in identifying mechanisms of adaptation to selection, but in establishing the proof of principle that a specific structure of interaction network emerges under ecosystem artificial selection. We also investigated the limits in ecosystem artificial selection to evaluate its potential in terms of managing ecosystem function. By artificially selecting microbial communities for low emissions over 21 generations ( = 7560), we found a very high heritability of community phenotype (52%). Artificial selection was responsible for simpler interaction networks with lower interaction richness. Phenotype variance and heritability both decreased across generations, suggesting that selection was more likely limited by sampling effects than by stochastic ecosystem dynamics.
    Keywords: Artificial Selection ; Co‐Occurrence Network ; Ecological Interaction ; Experimental Evolution ; Heritability
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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