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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2011, Vol.63(6), pp.1239-1249
    Description: The present work focuses on approaches for the characterization of subsurface contamination, which need to be reliable and cost-effective, particularly for extended and remote areas aimed at being redeveloped. Requirements are discussed with respect to specific conditions at megasites, in order to enable site valorization. In a case study, two approaches are compared, comprising (1) conventional site investigation based on historical surveys and concentration measurements at monitoring wells installed in areas suspected of being polluted and (2) the use of direct push (DP) methods covering the complete area. The DP investigation provided information on the contamination distribution and yielded also important information on hydraulic conditions. Statistical analysis of the results applying indicator kriging revealed that the conventional approach is markedly risky when decision-making relies solely on historical and sparse data. The DP campaign remarkably reduced the uncertainty concerning the estimated occurrence of polluted groundwater at the whole site. Furthermore, monitoring measurements are analyzed showing the possible importance of temporal variability. Taking economical consideration into account, DP-based groundwater screening is recommended to obtain either first or complementary information on the entire site. Based on these data, also locations for a long-term monitoring could be selected if temporal variability is assumed relevant.
    Keywords: Groundwater contamination ; Direct-push ; Screening ; Monitoring ; Megasite
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 May 2018, Vol.624, pp.968-978
    Description: The challenges posed by climate and land use change are increasingly complex, with ever-increasing and accelerating impacts on the global environmental system. The establishment of an internationally harmonized, integrated, and long-term operated environmental monitoring infrastructure is one of the major challenges of modern environmental research. Increased efforts are currently being made in Europe to establish such a harmonized pan-European observation infrastructure, and the European network of Long-Term Ecological Research sites – LTER-Europe – is of particular importance. By evaluating 477 formally accredited LTER-Europe sites, this study gives an overview of the current distribution of these infrastructures and the present condition of long-term environmental research in Europe. We compiled information on long-term biotic and abiotic observations and measurements and examined the representativeness in terms of continental biogeographical and socio-ecological gradients. The results were used to identify gaps in both measurements and coverage of the aforementioned gradients. Furthermore, an overview of the current state of the LTER-Europe observation strategies is given. The latter forms the basis for investigating the comparability of existing LTER-Europe monitoring concepts both in terms of observational design as well as in terms of the scope of the environmental compartments, variables and properties covered.
    Keywords: Long-Term Ecological Monitoring ; Ecosystem Integrity ; Essential Biodiversity Variables ; Biogeographical Representativeness ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, Jan-Feb, 2007, Vol.71(1), p.43(8)
    Description: The majority of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) published for estimating water retention characteristics (WRC) use data on soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content (OM) as predictors. For soil hydrological modeling on a regional scale, in particular the derivation of appropriate values for a PTF parameterization can be difficult where organic C data are missing. Assuming the indirect interdependency between OM and bulk density, a new PTF has been developed that estimates the WRC using only soil texture and bulk density data. To achieve a regression-based reproduction of the correlations, a calibration was chosen that connects the parameters of the van Genuchten equation with the data on bulk density and soil texture, using linear and nonlinear relationships. More than 90% of the variability in measured soil water contents was explained by the new model. The validity of the PTF was tested with a data set of 147 measured WRCs ([r.sup.2] = 0.94). Compared with another frequently used PTF model, which uses the organic C content as an additional predictor, the new model provided comparable or slightly better predictions of the WRCs. Abbreviations: MD, mean deviation; OM, organic matter content; PTF, pedotransfer function; r, Pearson correlation coefficient; RMSD, root mean squared deviation; WRC, water retention characteristic.
    Keywords: Dispersion Measures (Statistics) -- Usage ; Soil Moisture -- Measurement ; Soil Moisture -- Research ; Organic Compounds -- Measurement
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, Vol.67(6), pp.1859-1859
    Description: Byline: Olaf Kolditz (1,2), Karsten Rink (1), Haibing Shao (1), Thomas Kalbacher (1), Ralf Kunkel (3), Steffen Zacharias (1), Peter Dietrich (1,4) Author Affiliation: (1) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany (2) Applied Environmental Systems Analysis, Technische Universitat Dresden, 01062, Dresden, Germany (3) Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425, Juelich, Germany (4) Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tubingen, Holderlinstrasse 12, 72074, Tubingen, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 27/08/2012 Online Date: 12/09/2012 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found under doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-1661-8. The online version of the original article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1661-8.
    Keywords: Geophysics -- Models;
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, Vol.66(4), pp.1279-1284
    Description: Byline: Olaf Kolditz (1,2), Karsten Rink (1), Haibing Shao (1), Thomas Kalbacher (1), Steffen Zacharias (1), Peter Dietrich (1,3) Author Affiliation: (1) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany (2) Applied Environmental Systems Analysis, Technische Universitat Dresden, 01062, Dresden, Germany (3) Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tubingen, Holderlinstrasse 12, 72074, Tubingen, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 27/03/2012 Online Date: 19/04/2012 Article note: A German-wide Earth observation network, TERENO, was launched 3 years ago by the Helmholtz Association and now brings together climate and environmental research from the Alps to the Baltic coast. UFZ researchers from the Department of Environmental Informatics, Karsten Rink, Haibing Shao, Thomas Kalbacher, and Olaf Kolditz together with colleagues from the Department of Monitoring and Exploration Technologies, Steffen Zacharias and Peter Dietrich outline how their collaborative work embarks on new paths with this long-term environmental observation system. Dr. Olaf Kolditz heads UFZ's Department of Environmental Informatics and chairs the Department of Applied Environmental Systems Analysis at Technical University of Dresden. Dr. Peter Dietrich heads UFZ's Department of Monitoring und Exploration Technologies and is also the Professor for Environmental and Engineering Geophysics at the Eberhard-Karls-University of Tubingen.
    Keywords: Geophysics;
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2013, Vol.185(2), pp.1215-1235
    Description: Remote sensing is an important tool for studying patterns in surface processes on different spatiotemporal scales. However, differences in the spatiospectral and temporal resolution of remote sensing data as well as sensor-specific surveying characteristics very often hinder comparative analyses and effective up- and downscaling analyses. This paper presents a new methodical framework for combining hyperspectral remote sensing data on different spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate the potential of using the “One Sensor at Different Scales” (OSADIS) approach for the laboratory (plot), field (local), and landscape (regional) scales. By implementing the OSADIS approach, we are able (1) to develop suitable stress-controlled vegetation indices for selected variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), chlorophyll, photosynthesis, water content, nutrient content, etc. over a whole vegetation period. Focused laboratory monitoring can help to document additive and counteractive factors and processes of the vegetation and to correctly interpret their spectral response; (2) to transfer the models obtained to the landscape level; (3) to record imaging hyperspectral information on different spatial scales, achieving a true comparison of the structure and process results; (4) to minimize existing errors from geometrical, spectral, and temporal effects due to sensor- and time-specific differences; and (5) to carry out a realistic top- and downscaling by determining scale-dependent correction factors and transfer functions. The first results of OSADIS experiments are provided by controlled whole vegetation experiments on barley under water stress on the plot scale to model LAI using the vegetation indices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and green NDVI (GNDVI). The regression model ascertained from imaging hyperspectral AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL) data was used to model LAI. This was done by using the vegetation index GNDVI with an R 2 of 0.83, which was transferred to airborne hyperspectral data on the local and regional scales. For this purpose, hyperspectral imagery was collected at three altitudes over a land cover gradient of 25 km within a timeframe of a few minutes, yielding a spatial resolution from 1 to 3 m. For all recorded spatial scales, both the LAI and the NDVI were determined. The spatial properties of LAI and NDVI of all recorded hyperspectral images were compared using semivariance metrics derived from the variogram. The first results show spatial differences in the heterogeneity of LAI and NDVI from 1 to 3 m with the recorded hyperspectral data. That means that differently recorded data on different scales might not sufficiently maintain the spatial properties of high spatial resolution hyperspectral images.
    Keywords: Hyperspectral remote sensing ; Spatiotemporal scale ; Controlled long-term laboratory experiment ; Imaging spectroscopy ; Semivariogram ; AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL)
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 February 2018, Vol.613-614, pp.1376-1384
    Description: Global change effects on biodiversity and human wellbeing call for improved long-term environmental data as a basis for science, policy and decision making, including increased interoperability, multifunctionality, and harmonization. Based on the example of two global initiatives, the International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network and the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), we propose merging the frameworks behind these initiatives, namely ecosystem integrity and essential biodiversity variables, to serve as an improved guideline for future site-based long-term research and monitoring in terrestrial, freshwater and coastal ecosystems. We derive a list of specific recommendations of what and how to measure at a monitoring site and call for an integration of sites into co-located site networks across individual monitoring initiatives, and centered on ecosystems. This facilitates the generation of linked comprehensive ecosystem monitoring data, supports synergies in the use of costly infrastructures, fosters cross-initiative research and provides a template for collaboration beyond the ILTER and GEO BON communities.
    Keywords: Long‐Term Ecosystem Research ; Ebv ; Lter ; Research Infrastructure ; Site Networks ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2017, Vol.16(10), p.0
    Description: Characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of soil properties and states such as soil moisture (theta ) remains an important challenge in environmental monitoring. At the Schafertal hillslope site, the spatial patterns of theta measured by a distributed monitoring network and those of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measured by electromagnetic induction were characterized based on an integrated monitoring approach, and their possible controlling factors were investigated. With this study, we aimed to quantify the factors controlling the observed spatial patterns of theta and ECa and their interrelation. A principal component analysis was used to identify patterns within a data set comprising theta measured on seven dates within one hydrological year at 40 locations (three depths each) and ECa extracted from spatial maps for the same positions and dates. The first three independent principal components were all important for characterizing the spatial organization of topsoil moisture and its temporal changes. The dominant pattern responded to time-invariant soil attributes such as spatial soil properties and terrain attributes and could explain the spatial organization of ECa only on four of the seven measurement dates. The second and third principal components described the spatial reorganization of the patterns in response to theta dynamics within the soil profile and water removal processes, respectively, and showed distinct time-varying effects on the spatial pattern of theta and ECa. Our results can help with designing field monitoring campaigns and improving modeling approaches by providing insights into the nonstationary control of static and dynamic attributes on the spatial pattern of theta and ECa.
    Keywords: Soils ; Applied Geophysics ; Agriculture ; Apparent Conductivity ; Cambisols ; Case Studies ; Central Europe ; Central Germany ; Depth ; Drainage Basins ; Dynamics ; Electrical Conductivity ; Electromagnetic Methods ; Europe ; Geophysical Methods ; Geostatistics ; Germany ; Gleysols ; Harz Mountains ; Hydrologic Cycle ; Hydrology ; Lower Harz Mountains ; Moisture ; Monitoring ; Patterns ; Principal Components Analysis ; Quantitative Analysis ; Saxony-Anhalt Germany ; Schafertal Basin ; Seasonal Variations ; Slopes ; Soils ; Spatial Distribution ; Spatial Variations ; Statistical Analysis ; Temporal Distribution ; Unsaturated Zone;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2013, Vol.12(4)
    Description: Knowledge about soil properties and their variation in space and time is a key challenge for understanding processes in the vadose zone. As we consider more complex models, applied to larger geographical regions, the demand for information on key soil parameters and thus input variables...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    In: Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformation, October 2012, Vol.2012(5), pp.589-601
    Description: Hyperspectral remote-sensing data can contribute significantly to data analysis in research, opening up a wide spectrum for fields of application due to geometrical as well as spectral characteristics, e.g. in water status analysis, in the classification of vegetation types, in the classification of physical-biochemical vegetation parameters, in classifying soil composition and structure, and in determining large-scale soil contamination. Hence, there is a tremendous demand for hyperspectral information. However the use of commercial hyperspectral data is associated with a number of problems and a great deal of time and effort is required for research using hyperspectral data that spans different spatial and/or hierarchical as well as temporal scales. As a result few investigations have been conducted on the causal relationships between imaging hyperspectral signals and meaningful vegetation variables over a longer monitoring period. At the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig a scale-specific hyperspectral remote sensing based on the sensors AISAEAGLE (400-970 nm) and AISA-HAWK (970-2500 nm) has been set up. On three different scales (plot, local and regional) intensive investigations are being carried out on the spatio-temporal responses of biophysical and biochemical state variables of vegetation, soil and water compared to the hyperspectral response. This paper introduces and discusses the scale approach and demonstrates some preliminary examples from its implementation.
    Keywords: Imaging Hyperspectral Remote Sensing ; Vegetation Monitoring ; Multi - Scale Analyses
    ISSN: 1432-8364
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