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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.339(1), pp.435-445
    Description: Atmospheric inputs of acids and nitrogen (N) have altered growth and vitality of forests for decades, but there is a lack of understanding concerning the response of these forests to reduced deposition. We studied fine root parameters of a Norway spruce stand treated with reduced input (clean rain) for 13 years. Fine roots of the clean rain plot had smaller N and Al contents, however, fine roots in the subsoil were still subjected to soil acidity and Al toxicity as indicated by a fine root Ca/Al ratio of less than 0.5. The treatment effect was most pronounced in the organic layer of the clean rain plot where fine root biomass increased by 66% and the live/dead ratio of fine roots increased by more than 100%. The elevated live/dead ratio was attributed to reduced mortality and faster decomposition of fine root litter. The latter was supported by a positive relationship between live/dead ratio and manganese content of fine roots. In contrast to the organic layer, fine root biomass was not different in the mineral soil. However, at 20–40 cm fine root diameter was greater and specific root tip density was smaller than in the topsoil likely because of strong N limitation as indicated by a C/N ratio of 〉50. Based on these morphological changes we postulate differing functional properties of fine roots in the organic layer and mineral soil below 20 cm depth. Further, our results suggest that Picea abies is able to adapt morphology and functional traits of its root system following reduced N availability.
    Keywords: Solling roof project ; Norway spruce ; Atmospheric deposition ; Fine roots ; Re-establishment
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Dec 15, 2013, Vol.310, p.110(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.006 Byline: Michael Goisser, Ulrich Zang, Egbert Matzner, Werner Borken, Karl-Heinz Haberle, Rainer Matyssek Abstract: acents Response of juvenile European beech upon transplant to heterogeneous light and water availability. acents Plant response was examined along the gradients of light and water availability. acents High light acclimation exacerbated productivity decline under drought. acents Progressive acclimation to shade and drought mitigated productivity decline within the study period. Article History: Received 18 April 2013; Revised 4 August 2013; Accepted 5 August 2013
    Keywords: Water ; Industrial Productivity
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2011, Vol.75(11), pp.3135-3154
    Description: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are continuously produced by bacteria during their growth and metabolism. In soils, EPS are bound to cell surfaces, associated with biofilms, or released into solution where they can react with other solutes and soil particle surfaces. If such reaction results in a decrease in EPS bioaccessibility, it may contribute to stabilization of microbial-derived organic carbon (OC) in soil. Here we examined: (i) the chemical fractionation of EPS produced by a common Gram positive soil bacterial strain ( ) during reaction with dissolved and colloidal Al species and (ii) the resulting stabilization against desorption and microbial decay by the respective coprecipitation (with dissolved Al) and adsorption (with Al(OH) ) processes. Coprecipitates and adsorption complexes obtained following EPS–Al reaction as a function of pH and ionic strength were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of adsorbed and coprecipitated EPS against biodegradation was assessed by mineralization experiments for 1100 h. Up to 60% of the initial 100 mg/L EPS-C was adsorbed at the highest initial molar Al:C ratio (1.86), but this still resulted only in a moderate OC mass fraction in the solid phase (17 mg/g Al(OH) ). In contrast, while coprecipitation by Al was less efficient in removing EPS from solution (maximum values of 33% at molar Al:C ratios of 0.1–0.2), the OC mass fraction in the solid product was substantially larger than that in adsorption complexes. Organic P compounds were preferentially bound during both adsorption and coprecipitation. Data are consistent with strong ligand exchange of EPS phosphoryl groups during adsorption to Al(OH) , whereas for coprecipitation weaker sorption mechanisms are also involved. X-ray photoelectron analyses indicate an intimate mixing of EPS with Al in the coprecipitates, which is not observed in the case of EPS adsorption complexes. The incubation experiments showed that both processes result in overall stabilization of EPS against microbial decay. Stabilization of adsorbed or coprecipitated EPS increased with increasing molar Al:C ratio and biodegradation was correlated with EPS desorption, implying that detachment of EPS from surface sites is a prerequisite for microbial utilization. Results indicate that the mechanisms transferring EPS into Al–organic associations may significantly affect the composition and stability of biomolecular C, N and P in soils. The observed efficient stabilization of EPS might explain the strong microbial character of organic matter in subsoils.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 December 2013, Vol.310, pp.110-119
    Description: Climate models predict increasing frequency and intensity of summer drought events for Central Europe. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of young beech ( L.) to extreme and repeated summer drought and the modulation of drought response patterns along the natural gradient of light availability at the study site. In autumn 2008, two-year-old, nursery derived beech – as used for forest conversion practices – was planted under a Norway spruce stand primarily opened through winter storm. Precipitation was manipulated in the growing seasons of 2009 through 2011, inducing a pronounced gradient of water availability. Individual drought-stress doses (DSD) and light doses (LD) were calculated for each beech sapling during the three growing seasons. Plant growth, CO -assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were reduced with increasing drought stress, but facilitated by increasing light availability. Progressive acclimation to water and light limitation during the three years of the experiment led to a decreased drought and shade sensitivity of diameter growth. Water-use efficiency, root/shoot ratio and rooting depth, were increased with decreasing water availability. Mean fine root diameter and specific fine root length correlated positively with both DSD and LD. Proceeding low-light acclimation was indicated by progressively increasing specific leaf area and reduced leaf dark-respiration. Present results suggest that nursery-induced high-light acclimation of the beech saplings, exacerbated light limitation upon transplant and hence productivity decline under co-occurring water limitation.
    Keywords: European Beech ; Drought ; Light ; Restoration ; Acclimation ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2014, Vol.177(2), pp.168-177
    Description: Soil drought influences the C turnover as well as the fine‐root system of tree saplings. Particularly during the period of establishment, the susceptibility to drought stress of saplings is increased because of incompletely developed root systems and reduced access to soil water. Here, we subjected beech saplings ( L.) to different levels of drought stress. Beech saplings were planted in rhizotrons, which were installed in the soil of a Norway spruce forest before bud burst. Soil moisture was manipulated in the following year during May to September. We measured photosynthetic net CO uptake, volume production of fine roots, and rhizosphere respiration during the growing season. Biometric parameters of the fine‐root system, biomass, and nonstructural carbohydrates were analyzed upon harvest in October. Photosynthesis and rhizosphere respiration decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose (cumulated soil water potential), and cumulative rhizosphere respiration was significantly negatively correlated with drought‐stress dose. Fine‐root length and volume production were highest at moderate soil drought, but decreased at severe soil drought. The proportion of fine‐roots diameter 〈 0.2 mm and the root‐to‐shoot ratio increased whereas the live‐to‐dead ratio of fine roots decreased with increasing drought‐stress dose. We conclude that the belowground C allocation as well as the relative water‐uptake efficiency of beech saplings is increased under drought.
    Keywords: Drought Stress ; European Beech ; Fine Roots ; Rhizosphere Respiration ; Rhizotrons
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    In: Tree Physiology, 2014, Vol. 34(1), pp.29-38
    Description: Drought reduces the carbon (C) assimilation of trees and decouples aboveground from belowground carbon fluxes, but little is known about the response of drought-stressed trees to rewetting. This study aims to assess dynamics and patterns of C allocation in beech saplings under dry and rewetted soil conditions. In October 2010, 5-year-old beech saplings from a forest site were transplanted into 20 l pots. In 2011, the saplings were subjected to different levels of soil drought ranging from non-limiting water supply (control) to severe water limitation with soil water potentials of less than −1.5 MPa. As a physiologically relevant measure of drought, the cumulated soil water potential (i.e., drought stress dose (DSD)) was calculated for the growing season. In late August, the saplings were transferred into a climate chamber and pulse-labeled with 13 C-depleted CO 2 (δ 13 C of −47‰). Isotopic signatures in leaf and soil respiration were repeatedly measured. Five days after soil rewetting, a second label was applied using 99 atom% 13 CO 2 . After another 12 days, the fate of assimilated C in each sapling was assessed by calculating the 13 C mass balance. Photosynthesis decreased by 60% in saplings under severe drought. The mean residence time (MRT) of recent assimilates in leaf respiration was more than three times longer than under non-limited conditions and was positively correlated to DSD. Also, the appearance of the label in soil respiration was delayed. Within 5 days after rewetting, photosynthesis, MRT of recent assimilates in leaf respiration and appearance of the label in soil respiration recovered fully. Despite the fast recovery, less label was recovered in the biomass of the previously drought-stressed plants, which also allocated less C to the root compartment (45 vs 64% in the control). We conclude that beech saplings quickly recover from extreme soil drought, although transitional after-effects prevail in C allocation, possibly due to repair-driven respiratory processes.
    Keywords: Carbon Balance ; Carbon Fluxes ; Drought Stress Quantification ; Labeling ; Recovery
    ISSN: 0829-318X
    E-ISSN: 1758-4469
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Catena, April 2013, Vol.103, pp.44-52
    Description: The significance of Saharan dust deposits for ecosystems has been demonstrated in several studies, showing its influence on pedogenesis and soil chemical and physical parameters by the addition of nutrient elements. This contribution is especially important for volcanic soils poor in plant-available phosphorous as those of the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Thus, this study investigates the spatial distribution of Saharan dust on the island, and determines its influence on soil properties and thus on the ecosystem of the island. Since silt-sized quartz is not autochthonously formed on the island, it served as a reliable indicator for Saharan dust. Quartz was identified and quantified using X-ray diffractometry. The influence of Saharan dust additions on soil properties was assessed by texture analyses and analyses of plant-available phosphorous, an element strongly limiting plant-growth on the island due to its fixation in the structure of amorphous volcanic clay. A luff–lee-effect revealed significant influence on dust distribution, whereas small geomorphologic structures as hollows and mounds hardly influenced the dust distribution pattern. A positive correlation of quartz content with the proportion of the grain size fraction 0.5–10 μm demonstrates an influence on soil physical properties, apparently influencing available water capacity. Furthermore, our data suggest an increasing content of plant-available phosphorous with a rising amount of Saharan dust in the soils. Thus, the input of Saharan dust influences soil fertility of La Palma and is an important factor regarding the fragility of the La Palma ecosystems. ► The depositional pattern of Saharan dust on La Palma is due to a luff-lee effect. ► The input of dust supplies local soils with plant-available phosphorous. ► Saharan dust is only redeposited in large-scale geomorphic structures, but hardly at a local scale.
    Keywords: Canary Islands ; Saharan Dust ; La Palma ; Luff–Lee-Effect ; Soil Fertility ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2013, Vol.103, pp.44-52
    Description: The significance of Saharan dust deposits for ecosystems has been demonstrated in several studies, showing its influence on pedogenesis and soil chemical and physical parameters by the addition of nutrient elements. This contribution is especially important for volcanic soils poor in plant-available phosphorous as those of the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Thus, this study investigates the spatial distribution of Saharan dust on the island, and determines its influence on soil properties and thus on the ecosystem of the island. Since silt-sized quartz is not autochthonously formed on the island, it served as a reliable indicator for Saharan dust. Quartz was identified and quantified using X-ray diffractometry. The influence of Saharan dust additions on soil properties was assessed by texture analyses and analyses of plant-available phosphorous, an element strongly limiting plant-growth on the island due to its fixation in the structure of amorphous volcanic clay. A luff–lee-effect revealed significant influence on dust distribution, whereas small geomorphologic structures as hollows and mounds hardly influenced the dust distribution pattern. A positive correlation of quartz content with the proportion of the grain size fraction 0.5–10μm demonstrates an influence on soil physical properties, apparently influencing available water capacity. Furthermore, our data suggest an increasing content of plant-available phosphorous with a rising amount of Saharan dust in the soils. Thus, the input of Saharan dust influences soil fertility of La Palma and is an important factor regarding the fragility of the La Palma ecosystems. ; p. 44-52.
    Keywords: Clay ; Available Water Capacity ; Soil Fertility ; Volcanic Soils ; Texture ; Plant Growth ; Soil Formation ; Quartz ; Ecosystems ; X-Radiation
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 9 January 2011, Vol.45(1), p.36
    Description: Athlete's heart as an adaptation to long-time and intensive endurance training can vary considerably between individuals. Genetic polymorphisms in the cardiological relevant insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signalling pathway seem to have an essential influence on the extent of physiological hypertrophy.
    Keywords: Sports ; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular -- Genetics ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I -- Genetics ; Myostatin -- Genetics ; Polymorphism, Genetic -- Genetics ; Receptor, IGF Type 1 -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, August 2017, Vol.215(3), pp.977-991
    Description: The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics. Absorptive fine root biomass per stand basal area increased significantly from temperate to boreal forests, coinciding with longer and thinner root tips with higher tissue density, smaller EMM biomass per root length and a shift in soil microbial community structure. The soil carbon (C) : N ratio was found to explain most of the variability in absorptive fine root and EMM biomass, root tissue density, N concentration and rhizosphere bacterial community structure. We suggest a concept of absorptive fine root foraging strategies involving both qualitative and quantitative changes in the root-mycorrhiza-bacteria continuum along climate and soil C : N gradients.
    Keywords: Boreal and Temperate Forests ; Climate Gradient ; Ectomycorrhizal (Ecm) Mycelium ; Fine and Ectomycorrhizal Root Biomass ; Root Foraging ; Root Morphology ; Soil C : n Ratio ; Soil and Rhizosphere Bacteria ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Taiga ; Plant Roots -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0028646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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