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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 17 May 2011, Vol.27(10), pp.6252-9
    Description: Mesoporous SiO(2)/TiO(2)/Fe(2)O(3) particles containing macropores of about 50 nm in diameter have been prepared by an aerosol process using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a templating agent. In contrast to the traditional templating effect of CTAB to form ordered mesoporous silicas, the morphology here is vastly different due to the presence of precursor iron salts. The particles have mesoporosity templated by CTAB but additionally have large voids leading to a combined macroporous and mesoporous structure. The morphology is explained through the formation of colloidal structures containing species such as CTA(+)X(-1)Fe(3+) colloids in the aerosol droplets, indicating of a salt bridging effect. This dual porosity has applied implications, as the macropores provide easy entry to the particle interior in potentially diffusion limited situations. Furthermore, the particles encapsulate Fe(2)O(3) and contain TiO(2) leading to the dual functional properties of magnetic response and photocatalytic activity.
    ISSN: 07437463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 11/27/2013, Vol.52(47), pp.16902-16910
    Description: Magnetic microspheres with an Fe sub(3)O sub(4) core and a SiO sub(2)-TiO sub(2) hybrid shell were prepared by a surfactant-assisted aerosol process and subsequent etching treatment. The core-shell spheres with robust and chemically stable Ti-O-Si shells exhibit excellent adsorption performance toward basic dyes. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained at 147 mg/g for methylene blue (MB) and 124.6 mg/g for basic fuchsin. MB with an initial concentration of 20 mg/L can be completely removed in 5 min at a dosage of 0.5 mg/L, and the equilibrium time is 90 min in the MB concentration range 20-250 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the dye saturated microspheres can be easily recycled by an external magnetic field and regenerated using 1-3 wt % NaOH aqueous solution. After six recycle runs, 98% of the adsorption capacity was still retained. The low-cost magnetic hollow spheres with good adsorption capacity are a promising candidate for water treatment.
    Keywords: Magnetic Fields ; Aerosols ; Dyes ; Basic Dyes ; Recycled ; Adsorption ; Microspheres ; Silicon Dioxide ; Analysis (MD) ; Chemical Analysis (Ep) ; Chemical Analysis (Ed) ; Chemical Analysis (EC) ; Surveying, Theory, and Analysis (CE);
    ISSN: 0888-5885
    E-ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 21 June 2011, Vol.27(12), pp.7854-9
    Description: A facile aerosol-based process (ABP) is developed to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles on the external surface of carbon microspheres or within the interior. This is accomplished through the competitive mechanisms of sucrose carbonization and the precipitation of soluble iron salts, in an aerosol droplet passing through a high temperature heating zone. At lower aerosolization temperatures, carbonization occurs first leading to iron salt precipitation on the external surface, while at higher temperatures interior placement occurs through concurrent iron salt precipitation and sucrose carbonization. The resulting composites are highly conducive to the reductive dechlorination of compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) as the carbon support is a strong adsorbent, and zerovalent iron effectively reduces TCE to innocuous gases such as ethane. Since both iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports, the simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis.
    Keywords: Aerosols ; Metal Nanoparticles ; Carbon -- Chemistry ; Environmental Restoration and Remediation -- Methods ; Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 07437463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 02 October 2012, Vol.28(39), pp.13783-7
    Description: The morphology of hollow, double-shelled submicrometer particles is generated through a rapid aerosol-based process. The inner shell is an essentially hydrophobic carbon layer of nanoscale dimension (20 nm), and the outer shell is a hydrophilic silica layer of approximately 40 nm, with the shell thickness being a function of the particle size. The particles are synthesized by exploiting concepts of salt bridging to lock in a surfactant (CTAB) and carbon precursors together with iron species in the interior of a droplet. This deliberate negation of surfactant templating allows a silica shell to form extremely rapidly, sealing in the organic species in the particle interior. Subsequent pyrolysis results in a buildup of internal pressure, forcing carbonaceous species against the silica wall to form an inner shell of carbon. The incorporation of magnetic iron oxide into the shells opens up applications in external stimuli-responsive nanomaterials.
    Keywords: Carbon -- Chemistry ; Nanostructures -- Chemistry ; Silicon Dioxide -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 07437463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(12), p.e0189793
    Description: The present study examined the types of situations that caused Chinese professional and non-professional drivers to become angry and investigated the differences in driving-elicited anger, considering the influences of type A behavior pattern and trait anger between the two groups. The 20-item revised Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to assess a sample of 232 drivers (57% professional, 43% non-professional). The non-professional drivers reported significantly higher levels of anger than the professional drivers on the overall Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the traffic obstructions and discourtesy subscales. In both groups, the preferred driving speeds were positively related to driving anger. Furthermore, drivers with a type A personality exhibited higher overall driving anger scores and higher anger scores in response to traffic obstructions and slow driving than drivers with a type B personality. Trait anger was significantly related to driving anger in both groups. In the non-professional group, type A behavior patterns (TABPs) and time hurry (TH) were positively correlated with anger evoked by slow driving. In the professional group, TABPs, TH and competitive hostility (CH) were positively related to driving anger, and the TABPs exerted an indirect effect on driving anger by mediating the influence of trait anger. Overall, these findings provide a theoretical basis for implementing targeted interventions for driving anger in both professional and non-professional drivers.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: RSC Advances, 2014, Vol.4(40), pp.21060-21071
    Description: Massive silver nanowires with high yields have been synthesized within 10 minutes by a facile and effective two-step dropwise addition polyol method due to high reaction rates by virtue of high AgNO 3 concentrations and anti-oxidation properties of the reaction promoter FeCl 3 . In particular, pure nanowires could be obtained by varying the AgNO 3 concentrations from 0.1 M to 0.6 M. It was found that the concentrations of Fe 3+ , Cl , and PVP, bubbling atmosphere, reaction temperature, and time were important factors for controlling the morphology of the products. The results showed that a FeCl 3 concentration of 0.10.15 mM, a PVP concentration of 0.30.45 M, air bubbling atmosphere, a temperature of 150160 C, and a reaction time of 10120 min were appropriate conditions for the synthesis of nanowires, where the diameters could be tuned from 80 nm to 323 nm, and the length could be tuned from 3.7 m to 14.3 m. Moreover, Fe 3+ could accelerate and facilitate the formation of silver nanowires by preventing their oxidative etching, while excessive Fe 3+ also etched silver nanostructures. Furthermore, the rapid growth of nanowires due to a sufficient silver source provided by the second rapid dropwise addition and etching of other particles by Cl /O 2 occurred simultaneously under air, thereby producing high-quality silver nanowires. Additionally, the diameter of the silver nanowires decreased and their surfaces became rougher, which is ascribed to etching effects with the time. More specifically, two silver nanowires could fuse together to form long nanowires arising from the existence of high nitrate anion concentrations. The size-dependent UV-VIS absorption spectra displayed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak broadened and red shifted from 384 nm to 458 nm with an increase in diameter from 80 nm to 323 nm. Meanwhile, the number of SPR peaks decreased from two to one. In consideration of morphology controllability, less time and energy cost, and synthesis of massive nanowires, the method is promising for realizing the industrial production of silver nanowires.
    Keywords: Bubbling ; Morphology ; Temperature ; Nanowires ; Synthesis ; Etching ; Silver ; Surface Chemistry ; Solid State Milieux (General) (So) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (MD) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ep) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ed) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (EC);
    ISSN: 2046-2069
    ISSN: RSC Advances
    E-ISSN: 2046-2069
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 16 October 2018, Vol.90(20), pp.12172-12179
    Description: A multiplex-on-bead-isotope-dimethyl-labeling method was developed for the quantitative analysis of sulfonamides (SAs) in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). In this method, five samples could be labeled in parallel with different isotope reagents and quantified in a single LC-HRMS analysis. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) was employed in the sample preparation to concentrate the trace-level analytes by using lab-synthesized magnetic carbon nanospheres (MCNSs). After the analytes were captured on the MCNSs, the isotope labeling was performed directly by dispersing the MCNSs in the reaction buffer (on-bead labeling). The experimental conditions for MSPE and labeling were systematically investigated. For the tested 12 SAs, a labeling efficiency of over 99% could be achieved within 20 min. The LC-HRMS separation, including equilibration, could be achieved in 6 min. By combining MSPE (enriched 200-fold), multiplex on-bead dimethyl labeling, and LC-HRMS, all the tested SAs could be reliably quantified with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.1-5 ng/L. This method was verified using fortified pond water spiked with 12 SAs (0.01-5 μg/L), and accuracies of 81-106% were achieved with good reproducibility (RSD 〈 10%, n = 3), which confirmed its applicability in real-sample analysis. With this method, ice samples collected at the estuary of the Daliao River in northeast China were analyzed; nine SAs (sulfanilamide, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethizole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfameter, sulfathiazole, and sulfisoxazole) were detected at concentrations of 0-85 ng/L, and the total concentrations were in the range of 185-402 ng/L with a median value of 274 ng/L.
    Keywords: Isotopes ; Chromatography ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mass Spectrometry ; Liquid Chromatography ; Reagents ; Reproducibility ; Analytical Chemistry ; Sulfisoxazole ; Estuaries ; Sulfonamides ; Liquid Chromatography ; Mass Spectrometry ; Rivers ; Sulfamethizole ; Water Analysis ; Labelling ; Sulfanilamide ; Sulfameter ; Quantitative Analysis ; Solid Phases ; Sample Preparation ; Reagents ; Sulfapyridine ; Estuarine Environments ; Sulfamethazine ; High Resolution ; Spectroscopy ; Multiplexing ; Mass Spectroscopy ; Dimethyl ; Sulfathiazole ; Sulfamethoxypyridazine ; Liquid Chromatography ; Nanospheres ; Water Sampling ; Sulfonamides ; Estuaries;
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 12/07/2011, Vol.50(23), pp.13021-13029
    Description: Spherical iron-carbon nanocomposites were synthesized through a facile aerosol-based process and a subsequent carbothermal reduction. The distribution and immobilization of iron particles throughout the carbon microspheres prevents nanoiron aggregation, allowing the maintenance of particle reactivity. The carbon microspheres allow adsorption of TCE, thus removing dissolved TCE rapidly and facilitating reaction by increasing the local concentration of TCE in the vicinity of iron particles. The strongly adsorptive property of the composites may prevent release of toxic chlorinated intermediate products. The nanoscale composite particle size is in the optimal range for effective transport through groundwater saturated sediments. It is also shown that carbothermal treatment of the composite material leads to highly porous carbon materials containing zerovalent iron species, a necessary reactive component in the reaction pathway. The mesoporous structure generated allows access to internal reactive sites.
    Keywords: Adsorptivity ; Particulate Composites ; Aerosols ; Carbon ; Chlorination ; Iron ; Nanostructure ; Microspheres ; Analysis (MD) ; Chemical Analysis (Ep) ; Chemical Analysis (Ed) ; Chemical Analysis (EC) ; Surveying, Theory, and Analysis (CE);
    ISSN: 0888-5885
    E-ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Materials Science, 2018, Vol.53(3), pp.1801-1809
    Description: Mesoporous silica material has dual characteristics including adsorption of organic contaminants and transport through the sediments, making it an ideal material as a platform for zerovalent iron particles in the in situ remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids such as trichloroethylene. In this paper, tunable adsorption behavior of silica materials was quantitatively investigated by batches of equilibrium experiments. Significant enhancement in adsorption capacity was observed on mesoporous organo-silica particles as a consequence of the functionalization of particle surface from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity. The fact that there is a wide difference in adsorption capacities between the non-functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and the alkyl-functionalized mesoporous silica prompted a study to control adsorption levels by simply adjusting the amount of methyl triethoxysilane (MTES) precursor in a mixture of MTES and tetramethoxysilane. In comparison with the most commonly used adsorbent activated carbon, the higher yield of adsorbent of 83 ± 2.6% was observed for mesoporous methyl silica particles. Particle characterizations were performed by means of X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared measurements.
    Keywords: Silicon Dioxide ; Adsorption ; Alkyl Groups;
    ISSN: 0022-2461
    E-ISSN: 1573-4803
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2016, Vol.10(3), pp.548-558
    Description: The objective of this study is to select and characterize the candidate for synchronous water purification and lipid production from eight freshwater microalgae strains ( Chlorella sp. HQ, C. emersonii , C. pyrenoidosa , C. vulgaris , Scenedesmus dimorphus , S. quadricauda , S. obiquus , Scenedesmus sp. LX1). The strains Chlorella sp. HQ, C. pyrenoidesa , and S. obliquus showed superiority in biomass accumulation, while the top biomass producers did not correspond to the top lipid producers. S. quadricauda achieved higher lipid content (66.1%), and Chlorella sp. HQ and S. dimorphus ranked down in sequence, with lipid content above 30%. Considering nutrient removal ability (total nitrogen (TN): 52.97%; total phosphorus (TP): 84.81%), the newly isolated microalga Chlorella sp. HQ was the possible candidate for water purification coupled with lipid production. To further investigate the lipid producing and nutrient removal mechanism of candidate microalga, the ultra structural changes especially the lipid droplets under different water qualities (different TN and TP concentrations) were characterized. The results elucidate the nutrient-deficiency (TN: 3.0 mg·L –1 ; TP: 0.3 mg·L –1 ) condition was in favor of forming lipid bodies in Chlorella sp. HQ at the subcellular level, while the biomass production was inhibited due to the decrease in chloroplast number which could further suppress the nutrient removal effect. Finally, a twophase cultivation process (a nutrient replete phase to produce biomass followed by a nutrient deplete phase to enhance lipid content) was conducted in a photo-bioreactor for Chlorella sp. HQ to serve for algae-based synchronous biodiesel production and wastewater purification.
    Keywords: freshwater microalgae ; biomass production ; lipid accumulation ; nutrient removal
    ISSN: 2095-2201
    E-ISSN: 2095-221X
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