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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chinese Journal of International Law, June, 2013, Vol.12(2), p.255-280
    Keywords: Law Of The Sea -- Cases ; Bangladeshi Foreign Relations ; Burmese Foreign Relations
    ISSN: 1540-1650
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, May 17, 2013, Vol.340(6134), p.867(4)
    Description: Wnt signaling stabilizes [beta]-catenin through the LRP6 receptor signaling complex, which antagonizes the [beta]-catenin destruction complex. The Axin scaffold and associated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) have central roles in both assemblies, but the transduction mechanism from the receptor to the destruction complex is contentious. We report that Wnt signaling is governed by phosphorylation regulation of the Axin scaffolding function. Phosphorylation by GSK3 kept Axin activated ("open") for [beta]-catenin interaction and poised for engagement of LRP6. Formation of the Wnt-induced LRP6-Axin signaling complex promoted Axin dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase-1 and inactivated ("closed") Axin through an intramolecular interaction. Inactivation of Axin diminished its association with [beta]-catenin and LRP6, thereby inhibiting [beta]-catenin phosphorylation and enabling activated LRP6 to selectively recruit active Axin for inactivation reiteratively. Our findings reveal mechanisms for scaffold regulation and morphogen signaling. 10.1126/science.1232389
    Keywords: Cellular Biology ; Proteins ; Kinetics ; Enzymes;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cardiology, 2011, Vol.152, pp.S20-S21
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0167-5273
    E-ISSN: 1874-1754
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, Oct 24, 2013, Vol.52(2), p.157(2)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.10.008 Byline: Xinjun Zhang, Xi He Abstract: In this issue of Molecular Cell, Park and colleagues (Jung et al., 2013) show that PAF (PCNA-associated factor) binds to and hyperactivates transcriptional function of [beta]-catenin in colon cancer cells by recruiting EZH2 to the coactivator complex. PAF-[beta]-catenin and PAF-PCNA interactions are competitive, raising the question of whether [beta]-catenin might regulate PCNA-dependent DNA replication and repair. Author Affiliation: (1) F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Keywords: Dna Replication ; Colorectal Cancer
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    Description: The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC) due to gene amplification. Although the oncogenic effect of TPD52 is well recognized, how its expression is regulated is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of miR-218, a tumor suppressing miRNA on TPD52 expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of miR-218 was significantly lower in PC specimens. Based on gain and loss of function analysis, we found miR-218 significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that miR-218 plays a tumor suppressor role in PC cells. In addition, our data firstly demonstrated that miR-218 directly regulates oncogenic TPD52 in PC3 cells and the miR-218-TPD52 axis can regulate growth of this prostate cancer cell line. Knockdown of TPD52 resulted in significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis. Clearly understanding of oncogenic TPD52 pathways regulated by miR-218 might be helpful to reveal new therapeutic targets for PC.
    Keywords: Mir-218 ; Tpd52 ; Prostate Cancer ; Apoptosis ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Signal Processing, September 2013, Vol.93(9), pp.2422-2431
    Description: An embedded partial encryption technique of compressed color images based on chaos is proposed. Modifying the bit values of different types which are obtained by Color-SPIHT (CSPIHT) compression algorithm leads to varying degradation degree of retrieved images. This signifies that the six bit types have various contributions to decoding. As long as the most important bits that have the greatest contribution are encrypted, we can ensure no information leaking out and minimal computation. The piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM) is appropriate for generating random number sequence used in proposed cryptosystem for its perfect ergodicity and confusion. Thorough performance and security analysis as regards to diverse evaluation metrics ascertains that the scheme has less computational amount than 0.49%, resists against common cryptanalytic attacks, and preserves the scalability property of the encoder.
    Keywords: Partial Encryption ; Color-Spiht ; Pwlcm ; Most Important Bit ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0165-1684
    E-ISSN: 1872-7557
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2013, Vol.195(15-16), p.3486(17)
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Chancroid – Causes of ; Gene Expression – Research ; Hemophilus Infections – Research ; Virulence (Microbiology) – Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(8), p.e105644
    Description: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Air & Space Power Journal, Fall, 2010, Vol.24(3), p.18(2)
    ISSN: 1555-385X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    In: Chinese Journal of International Law, 2013, Vol. 12(2), pp.255-280
    Description: The Bay of Bengal case is the first maritime delimitation case before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS); the judgment is a milestone in the jurisprudence of the Tribunal for it to fulfil its designated role of “interpretation or application of the Convention”. This article summarizes the judgment and makes comments on several issues: jurisdictional issues relating to the change of forum, interpretative issues on “innocent passage”, the “equidistance/relevant circumstances” method of delimitation, and finally interpretation of Article 76 of the Convention, with special note on the roles of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and the Tribunal in the process.
    Keywords: Tribunals ; Bengal ; Congresses and Conventions ; Bangladesh ; International Court ; Jurisdiction ; Myanmar ; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ; Continental Shelf ; International Relations; International Law ; Article;
    ISSN: 1540-1650
    E-ISSN: 1746-9937
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