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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, January 2012, Vol.24(1), pp.123-36
    Description: Gene expression in plastids of higher plants is dependent on two different transcription machineries, a plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) and a nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase (NEP), which recognize distinct types of promoters. The division of labor between PEP and NEP during plastid development and in mature chloroplasts is unclear due to a lack of comprehensive information on promoter usage. Here, we present a thorough investigation into the distribution of PEP and NEP promoters within the plastid genome of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using a novel differential RNA sequencing approach, which discriminates between primary and processed transcripts, we obtained a genome-wide map of transcription start sites in plastids of mature first leaves. PEP-lacking plastids of the albostrians mutant allowed for the unambiguous identification of NEP promoters. We observed that the chloroplast genome contains many more promoters than genes. According to our data, most genes (including genes coding for photosynthesis proteins) have both PEP and NEP promoters. We also detected numerous transcription start sites within operons, indicating transcriptional uncoupling of genes in polycistronic gene clusters. Moreover, we mapped many transcription start sites in intergenic regions and opposite to annotated genes, demonstrating the existence of numerous noncoding RNA candidates.
    Keywords: Chloroplasts -- Genetics ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases -- Metabolism ; Hordeum -- Enzymology ; Plastids -- Enzymology ; RNA, Untranslated -- Genetics
    ISSN: 10404651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, April 2012, Vol.40(7), pp.3092-105
    Description: Most chloroplast mRNAs are processed from larger precursors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to mediate these processing events, including site-specific cleavage and the stalling of exonucleases by RNA structures. A protein barrier mechanism was proposed based on analysis of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein PPR10: PPR10 binds two intercistronic regions and impedes 5'- and 3'-exonucleases, resulting in processed RNAs with PPR10 bound at the 5'- or 3'-end. In this study, we provide evidence that protein barriers are the predominant means for defining processed mRNA termini in chloroplasts. First, we map additional RNA termini whose arrangement suggests biogenesis via a PPR10-like mechanism. Second, we show that the PPR protein HCF152 binds to the immediate 5'- or 3'-termini of transcripts that require HCF152 for their accumulation, providing evidence that HCF152 defines RNA termini by blocking exonucleases. Finally, we build on the observation that the PPR10 and HCF152 binding sites accumulate as small chloroplast RNAs to infer binding sites of other PPR proteins. We show that most processed mRNA termini are represented by small RNAs whose sequences are highly conserved. We suggest that each such small RNA is the footprint of a PPR-like protein that protects the adjacent RNA from degradation.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional ; Plant Proteins -- Metabolism ; RNA, Chloroplast -- Metabolism ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 3
    In: EMBO reports, January 2010, Vol.11(1), pp.59-64
    Description: The histone‐like protein HU is a highly abundant DNA architectural protein that is involved in compacting the DNA of the bacterial nucleoid and in regulating the main DNA transactions, including gene transcription. However, the coordination of the genomic structure and function by HU is poorly understood. Here, we address this question by comparing transcript patterns and spatial distributions of RNA polymerase in wild‐type and / mutant cells. We demonstrate that, in mutant cells, upregulated genes are preferentially clustered in a large chromosomal domain comprising the ribosomal RNA operons organized on both sides of OriC. Furthermore, we show that, in parallel to this transcription asymmetry, mutant cells are also impaired in forming the transcription foci—spatially confined aggregations of RNA polymerase molecules transcribing strong ribosomal RNA operons. Our data thus implicate HU in coordinating the global genomic structure and function by regulating the spatial distribution of RNA polymerase in the nucleoid. Fast growing E. coli cells form distinct structures of the nucleoid, the transcription foci, which are analogous to the eukaryotic nucleoli governing the synthesis of rRNA. Work by Farcas and colleagues shows that the major nucleoid‐associated protein HU is required for transcription foci formation and proposes a model in which HU stabilises transcription foci by serving as a topological sink constraining excessive DNA supercoils generated during rRNA transcription.
    Keywords: Rna Polymerase ; Dna Supercoiling ; Stable Rna Operons ; Transcription Foci ; Replication Origin
    ISSN: 1469-221X
    E-ISSN: 1469-3178
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Separation Science, July 2008, Vol.31(13), pp.2500-2510
    Description: Surface charge, molecular weight, and folding state are known to influence protein chromatographic behaviour onto ion exchangers. Experimentally, information related to such factors can be gathered2‐DE methods. The application of 2‐D PAGE under denaturing/reducing conditions was already shown to reveal separation trends within a large protein population from cell extracts. However, ion‐exchange chromatography normally runs under native conditions. A tailored protocol consisting in a first separation based on IEF on Immobiline strips under native conditions followed by a second dimension SDS‐PAGE run was adopted. The chromatographic electrophoretic separation behaviours of two model proteins, thaumatin (TAU) and BSA, were compared to better understand which proteomic routine would be better suited to anticipate IEX chromatographic separations. It was observed that the information contained in the pvalue obtained with the adapted 2‐DE protocol showed better correlation with the IEX chromatographic behaviour. On the other hand, chromatographic separations performed in the presence of urea as a denaturant have demonstrated the potential influence of hydrodynamic radius/conformation on protein separation. Moreover, the information provided by such 2‐D system correlated well with the chromatographic behaviour of an additional set of pure proteins. An initial prediction of protein ion‐exchange chromatographic behaviour could be possible utilizing an experimental approach based on 2‐DE running under milder chemical conditions. This technique provides information that more closely resembles the separation behaviour observed with a complex biotechnological feedstock.
    Keywords: Adsorption ; Chromatography ; Protein ; Proteomics ; Separations
    ISSN: 1615-9306
    E-ISSN: 1615-9314
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  • 5
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I
    Language: English
    Description: Die gegenwärtige Vorstellung von Genexpression in Plastiden leitet sich von der Analyse weniger, individueller Gene ab und ist deshalb noch relativ lückenhaft. In dieser Arbeit sollte daher differenzierende RNA Sequenzierung- eine neue Methode, die zwischen prozessierten und Primärtranskripten unterscheiden kann, verwendet werden, um ein vollständigeres Bild des Transkriptionsprozesses und der RNA Prozessierung von Hordeum vulgare L. (Gerste) Chloroplasten zu erhalten. Plastidengene in höheren Pflanzen können sowohl von einer plastidenkodierten, bakterienähnlichen RNA-Polymerase (PEP), als auch von einer kernkodierten, phagenähnlichen RNA-Polymerase (NEP), die beide unterschiedliche Promotoren erkennen, abgelesen werden. In dieser Arbeit wurde die Verteilung von Transkriptionsstartstellen innerhalb des Plastidengenoms von grünen (reife Chloroplasten; Transkriptionsaktivität von PEP und NEP) und weißen Plastiden (Transkriptionsaktivität von NEP) der Gerstenmutantenlinie albostrians analysiert. Dies führte zu neuen Erkenntnissen bezüglich polymerasenspezifischer Genexpression in Plastiden. Auf Grundlage neuerer Arbeiten wird angenommen, daß nicht kodierende RNAs (ncRNAs) in Chloroplasten vorkommen. Die bisher verwendeten Methoden waren jedoch nicht geeignet, ncRNAs als Primärtranskripte zu identifizieren, die zumindest in Prokaryoten die häufigste Klasse von ncRNAs darstellen. In dieser Arbeit konnte durch dRNA-seq gezeigt werden, daß auch in Plastiden zahlreiche ncRNAs als Primärtranskripte generiert werden. Die wichtigsten Schritte im Prozess der mRNA Reifung in Plastiden sind 5´und 3´ Endformation und intercistronische Prozessierung. Vor Kurzem wurde gezeigt, daß ein PPR (Pentatricopeptide repeat) Protein zur Bildung der Ende von einigen prozessierten Plastiden mRNAs beiträgt, indem es als Hindernis für Exonukleasen wirkt. Mit dieser Arbeit konnte gezeigt werden, daß dies ein genereller Mechanismus zur Bildung prozessierter mRNA-Enden in Chloroplasten ist. The current view on plastid gene expression is mainly based on the analysis of a few individual genes, and thus it is lacking in comprehensiveness. Here, a novel differential RNA-seq approach, designed to discriminate between primary and processed transcripts, was used to obtain a deeper insight into the plastid transcription and RNA maturation of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chloroplasts. Transcription in plastids of higher plants is dependent on two different transcription machineries, a plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) and a nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase (NEP), which recognize distinct types of promoters. This study provided a thorough investigation into the distribution of transcription start sites within the plastid genome of green (mature chloroplasts; transcription by both PEP and NEP) and white (PEP-deficient plastids; transcription by NEP) plastids of the barley line albostrians. This analysis led to new insights on polymerase specific gene expression in plastids. Recent studies have suggested that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are common in chloroplasts. However, they did not directly detect ncRNAs generated via transcription, the so far most abundant class of known regulatory ncRNAs in bacteria. Here, dRNA-seq analysis of the transcriptome of barley chloroplasts demonstrated the existence of numerous ncRNA generated via transcription of free-standing genes. Major events in plastid mRNA maturation include 5’ and 3’ processed end formation and intercistronic processing. Recently, a PPR (pentatricopeptide repeat) protein was shown to participate in the generation of several plastid mRNA processed ends by serving as a barrier to exonucleases. This study provided evidence for the global impact of this mechanism on processed termini formation in chloroplasts.
    Keywords: Transkription ; Plastiden ; Plastidenkodierte Rna-Polymerase ; Kernkodierte Rna-Polymerase ; Nicht Kodierende Rnas ; Mrna Reifung ; Transcription ; Non-Coding Rnas ; Plastids ; Plastid-Encoded Rna Polymerase ; Nuclear-Encoded Rna Polymerase ; Mrna Maturation ; 570 Biowissenschaften ; Biologie ; 32 Biologie ; Wg 2300 ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Gene, 15 August 2018, Vol.667, pp.45-55
    Description: High resolution chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has facilitated the identification of small chromosomal rearrangements throughout the genome, associated with various neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including ID/DD. Recently, it became evident that intellectual disability (ID)/developmental delay (DD) can occur with associated co-morbidities like epileptic seizures, autism and additional congenital anomalies. These observations require whole genome approach in order to detect the genetic causes of these complex disorders. In this study, we examined 92 patients of Bulgarian origin at age between 1 and 22 years with ID, generalized epilepsy, autistic signs and congenital anomalies. CMA was carried out using SurePrint G3 Human CGH Microarray Kit, 4 × 180 K and SurePrint G3 Unrestricted CGH ISCA v2, 4 × 180 K oligo platforms. Referral indications for selection of the patients were the presence of generalized refractory seizures disorders and co-morbid ID. Clearly pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in eight patients (8.7%) from our cohort. Additionally, possibly pathogenic rearrangements of unclear clinical significance were detected in six individuals (6.5%), which make for an overall diagnostic yield of 15.2% among our cohort of patients. We report here the patients with clearly pathogenic CNVs, discuss the potential causality of the possibly pathogenic CNVs and make genotype - phenotype correlations. One novel possibly pathogenic heterozygous deletion in 15q22.31 region was detected in a case with ID/DD. Additionally, whole APBA2 gene duplication in 15q13.1 was found in three generations of a family with epilepsy, ID and psychiatric abnormalities. The results from this study allow us to define the genetic diagnosis in a subset of Bulgarian patients and improve the genetic counseling of the affected families. To our knowledge, this is the first aCGH evaluation of a Bulgarian cohort of children with epilepsy and ID so far.
    Keywords: Chromosomal Microarray ; Neurodevelopmental Disorders ; Epilepsy ; Intellectual Disability ; Congenital Anomalies ; Engineering ; Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    E-ISSN: 1879-0038
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Epileptic Disorders, 2010, Vol.12(2), pp.117-124
    Description: SCN1A mutations account for a large proportion of Dravet syndrome patients, and are reported in other cases of epilepsy, such as some families with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). While most Dravet syndrome cases are caused by de novo mutations, 5% inherit a mutation from a mildly affected or symptom-free parent. Parental mosaicism has been identified, with documented cases involving truncating mutations or gene rearrangements. We describe a Roma/Gypsy family, where a missense mutation in SCN1A , p.D194N, is transmitted from a mosaic GEFS+ father to a child with Dravet syndrome. Mosaicism may be more common than assumed and should be considered regardless of the nature of the mutation.
    Keywords: Dravet syndrome ; GEFS+ ; SCN1A ; mutation ; mosaicism ; febrile seizures plus ; borderline SMEI
    ISSN: 1294-9361
    E-ISSN: 1950-6945
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Български език и литература, 2019, Vol.61(2), pp.156-168
    Description: The article includes aspects of the configurational syntactic analysis, which gives promising perspective for the school practice compared to the traditional approach. The idea for applying elements from the formal grammar while learning specific thematic units from the material for the 7th grade...
    Keywords: Social Sciences ; Language Studies ; Language and Literature Studies ; Education ; Other ; Theoretical Linguistics ; Applied Linguistics ; Vocational Education ; Adult Education ; Higher Education ; Conference Report ; Philology ; Inclusive Education / Inclusion ; Configurational Syntactic Analysis ; Structurography ; School Practice ; Personal Linguistic Profile ; Education ; Languages & Literatures
    ISSN: 0323-9519
    E-ISSN: 1314-8516
    Source: Central and Eastern European Online Library (C.E.E.O.L.)
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  • 9
    Text Resource
    Text Resource
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I
    Language: English
    Description: Die gegenwärtige Vorstellung von Genexpression in Plastiden leitet sich von der Analyse weniger, individueller Gene ab und ist deshalb noch relativ lückenhaft. In dieser Arbeit sollte daher differenzierende RNA Sequenzierung- eine neue Methode, die zwischen prozessierten und Primärtranskripten unterscheiden kann, verwendet werden, um ein vollständigeres Bild des Transkriptionsprozesses und der RNA Prozessierung von Hordeum vulgare L. (Gerste) Chloroplasten zu erhalten. Plastidengene in höheren Pflanzen können sowohl von einer plastidenkodierten, bakterienähnlichen RNA-Polymerase (PEP), als auch von einer kernkodierten, phagenähnlichen RNA-Polymerase (NEP), die beide unterschiedliche Promotoren erkennen, abgelesen werden. In dieser Arbeit wurde die Verteilung von Transkriptionsstartstellen innerhalb des Plastidengenoms von grünen (reife Chloroplasten; Transkriptionsaktivität von PEP und NEP) und weißen Plastiden (Transkriptionsaktivität von NEP) der Gerstenmutantenlinie albostrians analysiert. Dies führte zu neuen Erkenntnissen bezüglich polymerasenspezifischer Genexpression in Plastiden. Auf Grundlage neuerer Arbeiten wird angenommen, daß nicht kodierende RNAs (ncRNAs) in Chloroplasten vorkommen. Die bisher verwendeten Methoden waren jedoch nicht geeignet, ncRNAs als Primärtranskripte zu identifizieren, die zumindest in Prokaryoten die häufigste Klasse von ncRNAs darstellen. In dieser Arbeit konnte durch dRNA-seq gezeigt werden, daß auch in Plastiden zahlreiche ncRNAs als Primärtranskripte generiert werden. Die wichtigsten Schritte im Prozess der mRNA Reifung in Plastiden sind 5´und 3´ Endformation und intercistronische Prozessierung. Vor... ; The current view on plastid gene expression is mainly based on the analysis of a few individual genes, and thus it is lacking in comprehensiveness. Here, a novel differential RNA-seq approach, designed to discriminate between primary and processed transcripts, was used to obtain a deeper insight into the plastid transcription and RNA maturation of mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chloroplasts. Transcription in plastids of higher plants is dependent on two different transcription machineries, a plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) and a nuclear-encoded phage-type RNA polymerase (NEP), which recognize distinct types of promoters. This study provided a thorough investigation into the distribution of transcription start sites within the plastid genome of green (mature chloroplasts; transcription by both PEP and NEP) and white (PEP-deficient plastids; transcription by NEP) plastids of the barley line albostrians. This analysis led to new insights on polymerase specific gene expression in plastids. Recent studies have suggested that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are common in chloroplasts. However, they did not directly detect ncRNAs generated via transcription, the so far most abundant class of known regulatory ncRNAs in bacteria. Here, dRNA-seq analysis of the transcriptome of barley chloroplasts demonstrated the existence of numerous ncRNA generated via transcription of free-standing genes....
    Keywords: Transkription ; Plastiden ; Plastidenkodierte Rna-Polymerase ; Kernkodierte Rna-Polymerase ; Nicht Kodierende Rnas ; Mrna Reifung ; Transcription ; Non-Coding Rnas ; Plastids ; Plastid-Encoded Rna Polymerase ; Nuclear-Encoded Rna Polymerase ; Mrna Maturation ; Biowissenschaften, Biologie ; Biologie ; Wg 2300
    Source: DataCite
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