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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 06 November 2013, Vol.135(44), pp.16625-31
    Description: We report herein a Rh(III)-catalyzed cyclization of N-nitrosoanilines with alkynes for streamlined synthesis of indoles. The synthetic protocol features a distinct internal oxidant, N-N bond, as a reactive handle for catalyst turnover, as well as a hitherto tantalizingly elusive intermolecular redox-neutral manifold, predicated upon C-H activation, for the formation of a five-membered azaheterocycle. The compatibility of seemingly dichotomous acidic and basic conditions ensures reaction versatility for multifarious synthetic contexts. The tolerance of an array of auxiliary functional groups potentially permits predefined, programmable substitution patterns to be incorporated into the indole scaffold. Comprehensive mechanistic studies, under acidic condition, support [RhCp*](2+) as generally the catalyst resting state (switchable to [RhCp*(OOC(t)Bu)](+) under certain circumstance) and C-H activation as the turnover-limiting step. Given the variety of covalent linkages available for the nitroso group, this labile functionality is likely to be harnessed as a generic handle for strikingly diverse coupling reactions.
    Keywords: Chemical Bonds -- Analysis ; Indoles -- Research ; Rhodium -- Research;
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 10 November 2015, Vol.132(42), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: In this study, a macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM) was grafted with hydrophilic poly(‐vinyl‐2‐pyrrolidone) (PNVP) based on a one‐pot reversible‐addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. First, we prepared the clickable membrane by bromination and following S2 nucleophilic substitution reaction; then, click chemistry and RAFT polymerization were performed in one‐pot to graft PNVP to the MPPM surface. The surface characterizations, including attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field‐emission scanning electron microscopy, illustrated that PNVP was really grafted onto the MPPM surface. The permeation and antifouling characteristics of the MPPMs were measured by the filtration of a bovine serum albumin dispersion; this showed that in contrast to the nascent membrane, the grafted membrane efficiently obstructed protein molecules because of the compactly grafted polymer chains. The hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of MPPM were greatly ameliorated after modification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. , , 42649.
    Keywords: Grafting ; Hydrophilic Polymers ; Membranes ; Separation Techniques ; Surfaces And Interfaces
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    E-ISSN: 1097-4628
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.82(3), pp.443-450
    Description: The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on abalone ( ) embryonic development were investigated by exposing the fertilized eggs to four different concentrations of BPA (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 μg mL ). Toxicity endpoints including the embryo development parameters, the physiological features and the expression profile of several reference genes (prohormone convertase 1, ; cyclin B, ; and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, ) were assessed. The results showed that BPA could markedly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformation, and suppress the metamorphosis behavior of larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms hidden behind of these effects (i.e. disturbing the embryogenesis) might result from three aspects: (1) BPA disturbance the cellular ionic homeostasis and osmoregulation of abalone embryos by changing the Na –K -ATPase and Ca –Mg -ATPase levels; (2) BPA induced oxidative damage of embryos by significantly alterating the peroxidase (POD) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production; and (3) the RT-PCR analysis further demonstrated that BPA perturbed the cellular endocrine regulation and cell cycle progression by down-regulating the gene, as well as over-expressing the and genes. This is the first comprehensive study on the developmental toxicity of BPA to the marine abalone at morphological, physiological and molecular levels. The results in this study also indicated that the embryo tests can contribute to the ecological risk assessment of the endocrine disruptors in marine environment.
    Keywords: Effects ; Bisphenol A ; Abalone ; Embryonic Development ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, March, 2012, Vol.108, p.169(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.112 Byline: Guohua Jing, Jin Zhou, Zuoming Zhou, Tianming Lin Keywords: Magnetic microsphere; Immobilization; Iron-reducing bacteria; NO.sub.x removal Abstract: a* Magnetic Fe.sub.3O.sub.4-chitosan microspheres were used to immobilize iron-reducing bacteria. a* The immobilized bacteria had a good performance on Fe(III)EDTA.sup.- reduction. a* Immobilization improved the resistance of the bacteria against unfavorable condition. a* Immobilization decreased the inhibition of toxic compounds on Fe(III)EDTA.sup.- reduction. Author Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China Article History: Received 7 August 2011; Revised 19 December 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011
    Keywords: Microbial Drug Resistance ; Bacteria
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Jan 2, 2013, Vol.308, p.233(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2012.07.039 Byline: Jin Zhou, Victor W.-C. Chang, Anthony G. Fane Keywords: Life cycle impact assessment; Environmental impact; Aquatic eco-toxic impact; Brine disposal; Desalination Abstract: Most Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies did not quantify the aquatic eco-toxic potential (aquatic ETP) of the brine disposal mainly due to the limitation of current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches. The purpose of this study is to develop an improved approach for assessing the aquatic ETP of brine disposal from seawater desalination plants. The proposed approach, named group-by-group approach, calculates the average aquatic ETP as the sum of the impacts generated by acknowledged groups of influential chemicals. This approach firstly identifies the influential chemicals. According to the chemical property and the impact pathway to the aquatic ecosystem, the important chemicals are then categorized into groups under three categories. Depending on the characteristics of the defined groups, different strategies are applied to determine the impact of each group. The group-by-group approach takes the merits of two most commonly-used approaches, chemical specific approach and whole effluent approach. The results from the case study indicated that this approach reduces the reliance on the comprehensive chemical composition analysis and temporal ecotoxicology test of the complex desalination brine. It also provides a more comprehensive coverage, not only considering the impact of organic chemicals and metals, but also including the contribution of inorganic chemicals. Article History: Received 28 March 2012; Revised 24 July 2012; Accepted 27 July 2012
    Keywords: Seawater -- Chemical Properties ; Seawater -- Analysis ; Desalination Plants -- Chemical Properties ; Desalination Plants -- Analysis ; Desalination -- Chemical Properties ; Desalination -- Analysis ; Water Resources -- Chemical Properties ; Water Resources -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Dec 1, 2011, Vol.283, p.227(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.04.066 Byline: Jin Zhou, Victor W.-C. Chang, Anthony G. Fane Keywords: Environmental impacts; Life cycle assessment; Reverse osmosis desalination; Life cycle impact assessment method Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to examine whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination varies due to different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. An RO desalination plant in the United States was chosen in the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) using a generic LCIA method, CML 2, and an US-specific method, TRACI, to assess the environmental cost in different impact categories. The input and output flows of the RO plants were based on the previous study. Life cycle inventory (LCI) used was adopted from the Ecoinvent Database with specific US datasets. The results indicated the choice of LCIA method did make a significant difference in the LCA characterization results of the desalination process. The divergence in the coverage level of different material flows, characterization models engaged in the method, and differentiation of environmental interventions between two LCIA methods were identified as the major reasons for the disparate characterization scores in various impact categories including acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human health, and ecotoxicity potentials. This work also provided some suggestions in choosing the appropriate LCIA method for desalination industry and developing desalination-specialized LCIA method. Article History: Received 13 December 2010; Revised 26 April 2011; Accepted 28 April 2011
    Keywords: Reverse Osmosis -- Analysis ; Reverse Osmosis -- Methods ; Eutrophication -- Analysis ; Eutrophication -- Methods ; Desalination Plants -- Analysis ; Desalination Plants -- Methods ; Water Resources -- Analysis ; Water Resources -- Methods ; Desalination -- Analysis ; Desalination -- Methods
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2011, Vol.159(5), pp.1114-1122
    Description: The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 μg/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na –K -pump and Ca –Mg -pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes ( , , and ) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. ► PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. ► The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP 〉 DEP 〉 DMP 〉 DOP 〉 DEHP. ► The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.
    Keywords: Phthalate Esters ; Abalone ; Embryotoxicity ; Toxic Mechanisms ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, March, 2012, Vol.108, p.169(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.112 Byline: Guohua Jing, Jin Zhou, Zuoming Zhou, Tianming Lin Keywords: Magnetic microsphere; Immobilization; Iron-reducing bacteria; NO.sub.x removal Abstract: a* Magnetic Fe.sub.3O.sub.4-chitosan microspheres were used to immobilize iron-reducing bacteria. a* The immobilized bacteria had a good performance on Fe(III)EDTA.sup.- reduction. a* Immobilization improved the resistance of the bacteria against unfavorable condition. a* Immobilization decreased the inhibition of toxic compounds on Fe(III)EDTA.sup.- reduction. Author Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China Article History: Received 7 August 2011; Revised 19 December 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011
    Keywords: Iron (Metal) ; Bacteria
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    In: European Journal of Social Psychology, August 2016, Vol.46(5), pp.581-594
    Description: Research indicates that university student sportspeople are a high‐risk subgroup for hazardous alcohol consumption. Adopting a social identity perspective, we explored the social and psychological processes linking sports participation and alcohol use. Twenty‐two individual semi‐structured interviews were conducted with UK student sportspeople (male: 12; female: 10). A deductive thematic analysis identified three core themes: social identification and sports group membership, identity processes in (alcohol) behaviours and sport context‐specific significance of alcohol. Results suggest that the consumptive practices among student sportspeople were strategic activities underpinned by social identity processes, and which served to provide a positive sports experience at the group level. Our findings highlight the interactions between the sport environment, the social structure of sport participation and the multipurpose function of alcohol in this context. We discuss the implications of these results in support of a social identity approach to sport‐related drinking.
    Keywords: Alcohol Use ; Sports ; Student‐Athletes ; Social Identity ; Thematic Analysis
    ISSN: 0046-2772
    E-ISSN: 1099-0992
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, Sept 15, 2014, Vol.61, p.210(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.05.017 Byline: Jin Zhou, Victor W.-C. Chang, Anthony G. Fane Abstract: As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. Author Affiliation: Singapore Membrane Technology Center, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore Article History: Received 5 February 2014; Revised 16 April 2014; Accepted 12 May 2014
    Keywords: Desalination -- Analysis ; Green Technology -- Analysis ; Environmental Degradation -- Analysis ; Water Resources -- Analysis ; Sustainable Development -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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