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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 04 November 2011, Vol.334(6056), pp.693-7
    Description: Dominance hierarchy has a profound impact on animals' survival, health, and reproductive success, but its neural circuit mechanism is virtually unknown. We found that dominance ranking in mice is transitive, relatively stable, and highly correlates among multiple behavior measures. Recording from layer V pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) showed higher strength of excitatory synaptic inputs in mice with higher ranking, as compared with their subordinate cage mates. Furthermore, molecular manipulations that resulted in an increase and decrease in the synaptic efficacy in dorsal mPFC neurons caused an upward and downward movement in the social rank, respectively. These results provide direct evidence for mPFC's involvement in social hierarchy and suggest that social rank is plastic and can be tuned by altering synaptic strength in mPFC pyramidal cells.
    Keywords: Hierarchy, Social ; Prefrontal Cortex -- Physiology ; Synaptic Transmission -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 17 July 2013, Vol.135(28), pp.10210-3
    Description: AuNi alloy nanoparticles were successfully immobilized to MIL-101 with size and location control for the first time by double solvents method (DSM) combined with a liquid-phase concentration-controlled reduction strategy. When an overwhelming reduction approach was employed, the uniform 3D distribution of the ultrafine AuNi nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in the pores of MIL-101 was achieved, as demonstrated by TEM and electron tomographic measurements, which brings light to new opportunities in the fabrication of ultrafine non-noble metal-based NPs throughout the interior pores of MOFs. The ultrafine AuNi alloy NPs inside the mesoporous MIL-101 exerted exceedingly high activity for hydrogen generation from the catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane.
    Keywords: Gold -- Chemistry ; Metal Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Nickel -- Chemistry ; Organometallic Compounds -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, 2014, Vol.84, p.54(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.11.019 Byline: Jun Zhu, Huizheng Che, Xiangao Xia, Hongbin Chen, Phillipe Goloub, Wenxing Zhang Abstract: The AERONET level 2.0 data at Xinglong station from February 2006 to July 2011 were used to characterize the aerosol optical and physical properties, including temporal variability, aerosol absorption, classification and properties under dust and haze conditions. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) are 0.28 [+ or -] 0.30 and 1.07 [+ or -] 0.38, respectively. The seasonal variations of AOD.sub.440nm are higher in spring (0.40 [+ or -] 0.3) and summer (0.40 [+ or -] 0.42) than in autumn (0.20 [+ or -] 0.22) and winter (0.19 [+ or -] 0.21). The EAE is low in spring (0.96 [+ or -] 0.43) and high in summer (1.22 [+ or -] 0.38). The EAE is [approximately equal to]1.25 with an absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) of [approximately equal to]1.0-1.5 in Xinglong, which indicates that the dominant type is mixed aerosol (accounting for 88.2% at AAE 〉 1.0). Almost all of the dust observations occurred in spring. The volume concentrations of both fine and coarse mode particles increase with increasing AOD. In spring, the increase of coarse particles is greater than that of fine aerosols; however, the reverse phenomenon is observed for other seasons. The high AOD at Xinglong could be associated with the growth of fine mode aerosols and addition of coarse mode particles. This background station is not only impacted by dust aerosols from northwest China and south Mongolia but also influenced by long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols from south urban and industrialized regions. The mean AOD was 1.49 on the dust day, while AOD was 1.10 on the haze day. The mean EAEs were 0.09 and 1.43 on dust and haze days, respectively. Author Affiliation: (a) Laboratory for Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China (b) Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Composition, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing 100081, China (c) Laboratoire d' Optique Atmospherique, Universitede Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France (d) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China Article History: Received 22 April 2013; Revised 8 November 2013; Accepted 11 November 2013
    Keywords: Middle Atmosphere ; Atmospheric Physics ; Atmospheric Composition ; Atmospheric Chemistry
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.84(4), pp.484-489
    Description: ► Competitive sorption of Cu, Pb and Cr in ternary system on montmorillonite followed the sequence of Cr 〉〉 Cu 〉 Pb. ► The sorption of heavy metal on montmorillonite was inhibited by the presence of Ca and Mg. ► Aluminum and Fe generally inhibited the sorption of heavy metal when the pH and / or concentration of major elements were relatively low while promoted heavy metal sorption when the pH and / or concentration of major elements were relatively high. The competitive sorption among Cu, Pb and Cr in ternary system on Na-montmorillonite at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 and at different heavy metal concentrations, and the effect of varying concentrations of Al, Fe, Ca and Mg on the sorption of heavy metals were studied. Competitive sorption of Cu, Pb and Cr in ternary system on montmorillonite followed the sequence of Cr ≫ Cu 〉 Pb. Moreover, the competition was weakened by the increase of pH while was intensified by the increase of heavy metal concentration. The sorption of heavy metal on montmorillonite was inhibited by the presence of Ca and Mg, while Al and Fe showed different patterns in affecting heavy metal sorption. Aluminum and Fe generally inhibited the sorption of heavy metal when the pH and/or concentration of major elements were relatively low. However, promoting effects on heavy metal sorption by Al and Fe were found at relatively high pH and/or great concentration of major elements. The inhibition of major elements on heavy metal sorption generally followed the order of Al 〉 Fe 〉 Ca ⩾ Mg, while Fe was more efficient than Al in promoting the sorption of heavy metals. These findings are of fundamental significance for evaluating the mobility of heavy metals in polluted environments.
    Keywords: Montmorillonite ; Sorption ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 01 August 2012, Vol.134(30), pp.12323-5
    Description: The first total synthesis of (-)-lannotinidine B, a unique tetracyclic constitutent of Lycopodium annotinum, has been accomplished in 10 steps with 23% overall yield. The completed short and efficient synthesis is characterized with three highly chemo- and/or stereoselective reductive-amination steps to furnish the desired trans-fused 6/6 bicycle and the aza seven-membered ring system, and a direct intramolecular acyloin condensation to deliver the cyclopentanone moiety, as well as successful application of a protecting group-free strategy and an optimal redox order.
    Keywords: Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings -- Chemical Synthesis ; Lycopodium -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, Vol.189(1), pp.564-571
    Description: We studied the sorption of As(III) and As(V) onto ferrihydrite as affected by pH, nature and concentration of organic [oxalic (OX), malic (MAL), tartaric (TAR), and citric (CIT) acid] and inorganic [phosphate (PO ), sulphate (SO ), selenate (SeO ) and selenite (SeO )] ligands, and the sequence of anion addition. The sorption capacity of As(III) was greater than that of As(V) in the range of pH 4.0–11.0. The capability of organic and inorganic ligands in preventing As sorption follows the sequence: SeO ≈ SO 〈 OX 〈 MAL ≈ TAR 〈 CIT 〈 SeO ≪ PO . The efficiency of most of the competing ligands in preventing As(III) and As(V) sorption increased by decreasing pH, but PO whose efficiency increased by increasing pH. In acidic systems all the competing ligands inhibited the sorption of As(III) more than As(V), but in alkaline environments As(III) and As(V) seem to be retained with the same strength on the Fe-oxide. Finally, the competing anions prevented As(III) and As(V) sorption more when added before than together or after As(III) or As(V).
    Keywords: Sorption ; Ferrihydrite ; As(III) ; As(V) ; Competition ; Organic and Inorganic Ligands ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(1)
    Description: Gene co-expression networks comprise one type of valuable biological networks. Many methods and tools have been published to construct gene co-expression networks; however, most of these tools and methods are inconvenient and time consuming for large datasets. We have developed a user-friendly, accelerated and optimized tool for constructing gene co-expression networks that can fully harness the parallel nature of GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) architectures. Genetic entropies were exploited to filter out genes with no or small expression changes in the raw data preprocessing step. Pearson correlation coefficients were then calculated. After that, we normalized these coefficients and employed the False Discovery Rate to control the multiple tests. At last, modules identification was conducted to construct the co-expression networks. All of these calculations were implemented on a GPU. We also compressed the coefficient matrix to save space. We compared the performance of the GPU implementation with those of multi-core CPU implementations with 16 CPU threads, single-thread C/C++ implementation and single-thread R implementation. Our results show that GPU implementation largely outperforms single-thread C/C++ implementation and single-thread R implementation, and GPU implementation outperforms multi-core CPU implementation when the number of genes increases. With the test dataset containing 16,000 genes and 590 individuals, we can achieve greater than 63 times the speed using a GPU implementation compared with a single-thread R implementation when 50 percent of genes were filtered out and about 80 times the speed when no genes were filtered out.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 12 May 2010, Vol.132(18), pp.6284-5
    Description: This paper describes a palladium-catalyzed oxime assisted intramolecular dioxygenation of alkenes by using 1 atm of air as the sole oxidant under extremely mild conditions, which demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating atmospheric oxygen into synthetically useful products under 1 atm of air at room temperature.
    Keywords: Alkenes -- Chemical Properties ; Oxidation-reduction Reactions -- Analysis ; Palladium Catalysts -- Chemical Properties;
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Catalysis, Dec, 2013, Vol.308, p.37(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2013.05.018 Byline: Jia Yang, Yanying Qi, Jun Zhu, Yi-An Zhu, De Chen, Anders Holmen Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 28 February 2013; Revised 16 May 2013; Accepted 16 May 2013
    Keywords: Methane -- Models
    ISSN: 0021-9517
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 05 August 2016, Vol.476(4), pp.522-527
    Description: Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance.
    Keywords: Glioma ; Nek1 ; Temozolomide (Tmz) ; Proliferation ; Oncotarget ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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