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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), 1990, Vol.88(1), pp.199-204
    Keywords: Physics
    ISSN: 0022-2364
    E-ISSN: 1557-8968
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurotrauma, 15 December 2013, Vol.30(24), pp.2001-13
    Description: Individuals 65 years of age and over have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related hospitalizations and deaths, and older adults (defined variably across studies) have particularly poor outcomes after TBI. The factors predicting these outcomes remain poorly understood, and age-specific care guidelines for TBI do not exist. This study provides an overview of TBI in older adults using data from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) gathered between 2007 and 2010, evaluates age group-specific trends in rates of TBI over time using U.S. Census data, and examines whether routinely collected information is able to predict hospital discharge status among older adults with TBI in the NTDB. Results showed a 20-25% increase in trauma center admissions for TBI among the oldest age groups (those 〉=75 years), relative to the general population, between 2007 and 2010. Older adults (〉=65 years) with TBI tended to be white females who have incurred an injury from a fall resulting in a "severe" Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of the head. Older adults had more in-hospital procedures, such as neuroimaging and neurosurgery, tended to experience longer hospital stays, and were more likely to require continued medical care than younger adults. Older age, injury severity, and hypotension increased the odds of in-hospital death. The public health burden of TBI among older adults will likely increase as the Baby Boom generation ages. Improved primary and secondary prevention of TBI in this cohort is needed.
    Keywords: Brain Injuries -- Epidemiology ; Databases, Factual -- Trends ; Trauma Centers -- Trends
    ISSN: 08977151
    E-ISSN: 1557-9042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurotrauma, 01 June 2014, Vol.31(11), pp.1000-7
    Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are underlying dimensions common among traditional traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity indices and, if so, the extent to which they are interchangeable when predicting short-term outcomes. This study had an observational design, and took place in United States trauma centers reporting to the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). The sample consisted of 77,470 unweighted adult cases reported to the NTDB from 2007 to 2010, with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) TBI codes. There were no interventions. Severity indices used were the Emergency Department Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Total score and each of the subscales for eye opening (four levels), verbal response (five levels), and motor response (six levels); the worst Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severity score for the head (six levels); and the worst Barell index type (three categories). Prediction models were computed for acute care length of stay (days), intensive care unit length of stay (days), hospital discharge status (alive or dead), and, if alive, discharge disposition (home versus institutional). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) indicated a two dimensional relationship among items of severity indexes. The primary dimension reflected overall injury severity. The second dimension seemed to capture volitional behavior without the capability for cogent responding. Together, they defined two vectors around which most of the items clustered. A scale that took advantage of the order of items along these vectors proved to be the most consistent index for predicting short-term health outcomes. MCA provided useful insight into the relationships among components of traditional TBI severity indices. The two vector pattern may reflect the impact of injury on different cortical and subcortical networks. Results are discussed in terms of score substitution and the ability to impute missing values.
    Keywords: Ais ; Barell Matrix ; Gcs ; Mca ; Tbi ; Craniocerebral Trauma ; Trauma Severity Indices ; Brain Injuries -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 08977151
    E-ISSN: 1557-9042
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  • 4
    In: Muscle & Nerve, November 2018, Vol.58(5), pp.681-687
    Description: : Cost of illness studies are essential to estimate societal costs of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and identify cost‐driving factors. : In total, 108 patients were recruited from 3 specialized neuroimmunological clinics. Costs were calculated for a 3‐month period, including direct and indirect costs. The following outcomes were assessed: inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment disability scale, Mini‐Mental State Examination, Beck Depression Inventory, Charlson comorbidity index, EuroQol‐5D, World Health Organization quality of life instrument, and socioeconomic status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify cost‐driving factors. : Total quarterly costs were €11,333. Direct costs contributed to 83% of total costs (€9,423), whereas indirect costs accounted for 17% (€1,910) of total costs. The cost of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) was the main determinant of total costs (67%). Reduced health‐related quality of life and depressive symptoms were identified as independent predictors of higher total costs. : CIDP is associated with high societal costs, mainly resulting from the cost of IVIg treatment. : 681–687, 2018
    Keywords: Cidp ; Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy ; Cost Analysis ; Coi ; Intravenous Immune Globulin
    ISSN: 0148-639X
    E-ISSN: 1097-4598
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  • 5
    In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2019, Vol.25(3), pp.302-313
    Description: Abstract Objectives: Individuals with moderate–severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience a transitory state of impaired consciousness and confusion often called posttraumatic confusional state (PTCS). This study examined the neuropsychological profile of PTCS. Methods: Neuropsychometric profiles of 349 individuals in the TBI Model Systems National Database were examined 4 weeks post-TBI (±2 weeks). The PTCS group was subdivided into Low ( n =46) and High Performing PTCS ( n =45) via median split on an orientation/amnesia measure, and compared to participants who had emerged from PTCS ( n =258). Neuropsychological patterns were examined using multivariate analyses of variance and mixed model analyses of covariance. Results: All groups were globally impaired, but severity differed across groups ( F (40,506)=3.44; p 〈.001; ŋ p 2 =.206). Rate of forgetting (memory consolidation) was impaired in all groups, but failed to differentiate them ( F (4,684)=0.46; p =.762). In contrast, executive memory control was significantly more impaired in PTCS groups than the emerged group: Intrusion errors: F (2,343)=8.78; p 〈.001; ŋ p 2 =.049; False positive recognition errors: F (2,343)=3.70; p 〈.05; ŋ p 2 =.021. However, non-memory executive control and other executive memory processes did not differentiate those in versus emerged from PTCS. Conclusions: Executive memory control deficits in the context of globally impaired cognition characterize PTCS. This pattern differentiates individuals in and emerged from PTCS during the acute recovery period following TBI. ( JINS , 2019, 25 , 302–313)
    Keywords: Special Section: Traumatic Brain Injury; Posttraumatic Amnesia; Head Injury; Delirium; Cognition; Memory; Executive Functioning
    ISSN: 1355-6177
    E-ISSN: 1469-7661
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