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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 18 May 2012, Vol.336(6083), pp.874-6
    Description: The view of humans as violent war-prone apes is poorly supported by archaeological evidence and only partly supported by the behavior of our closest primate relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos. Whereas the first species is marked by xenophobia, the second is relatively peaceful and highly empathic in both behavior and brain organization. Animal empathy is best regarded as a multilayered phenomenon, built around motor mirroring and shared neural representations at basal levels, that develops into more advanced cognitive perspective-taking in large-brained species. As indicated by both observational and experimental studies on our closest relatives, empathy may be the main motivator of prosocial behavior.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Empathy ; Hominidae -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.478(7369), p.324
    Keywords: Communication ; Liability, Legal ; Earthquakes -- Mortality ; Research Personnel -- Legislation & Jurisprudence;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Nov 3, 2011, Vol.479(7371), p.51(2)
    Keywords: Dinosaurs -- Environmental Aspects ; Dinosaurs -- Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 24 February 2012, Vol.335(6071), pp.962-6
    Description: Standard economic theory suggests that one-time business grants can have at most temporary effects, and accordingly, policies to increase incomes of the self-employed in developing countries typically rely on sustained engagement. In contrast, we found long-lasting impacts from one-time grants given in a randomized experiment to subsistence firms. Five years after we gave $100 or $200 to 115 of 197 male and 100 of 190 female Sri Lankan microenterprise owners, we found 10-percentage-point-higher enterprise survival rates, and $8-to-$12-per-month-higher profits for male-owned businesses that received the grants. Female-owned businesses showed no long-term (or short-term) impacts. Our follow-up investigation interviewed 94% of the original sample and collected survivorship data from the remaining 6%, demonstrating that tracking long-term outcomes is both feasible and worthwhile. The results suggest that one-off grants may have lasting impacts on some types of subsistence firms, challenging the view that sustained engagement is always required.
    Keywords: Microeconomics ; Small Business ; Capital ; Developing Countries–Ldcs ; Grants;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 20 December 2013, Vol.342(6165), pp.1473-7
    Description: Determination of an exoplanet's mass is a key to understanding its basic properties, including its potential for supporting life. To date, mass constraints for exoplanets are predominantly based on radial velocity (RV) measurements, which are not suited for planets with low masses, large semimajor axes, or those orbiting faint or active stars. Here, we present a method to extract an exoplanet's mass solely from its transmission spectrum. We find good agreement between the mass retrieved for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from transmission spectroscopy with that from RV measurements. Our method will be able to retrieve the masses of Earth-sized and super-Earth planets using data from future space telescopes that were initially designed for atmospheric characterization.
    Keywords: Extrasolar Planets ; Spectrum Analysis ; Astrophysics;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nature, May 12, 2011, Vol.473(7346), p.161(3)
    Keywords: Cellular Signal Transduction -- Research ; Ethanolamines -- Physiological Aspects ; Ethanolamines -- Research ; Caenorhabditis Elegans -- Health Aspects ; Caenorhabditis Elegans -- Research ; Fasting -- Influence ; Life Span (Biology) -- Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Oct 22, 2015, Vol.526(7574), p.506(1)
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 29 June 2012, Vol.336(6089), pp.1658-61
    Description: Only a small fraction of the immense diversity of plant metabolism has been explored for the production of new medicines and other products important to human well-being. The availability of inexpensive high-throughput sequencing is rapidly expanding the number of species that can be investigated for the speedy discovery of previously unknown enzymes and pathways. Exploitation of these resources is being carried out through interdisciplinary synthetic and chemical biology to engineer pathways in plant and microbial systems for improving the production of existing medicines and to create libraries of biologically active products that can be screened for new drug applications.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Plants -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 26 April 2013, Vol.340(6131), pp.483-5
    Description: Conformity to local behavioral norms reflects the pervading role of culture in human life. Laboratory experiments have begun to suggest a role for conformity in animal social learning, but evidence from the wild remains circumstantial. Here, we show experimentally that wild vervet monkeys will abandon personal foraging preferences in favor of group norms new to them. Groups first learned to avoid the bitter-tasting alternative of two foods. Presentations of these options untreated months later revealed that all new infants naïve to the foods adopted maternal preferences. Males who migrated between groups where the alternative food was eaten switched to the new local norm. Such powerful effects of social learning represent a more potent force than hitherto recognized in shaping group differences among wild animals.
    Keywords: Social Conformity ; Transfer (Psychology) ; Cercopithecus Aethiops -- Physiology ; Food Preferences -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 19 April 2013, Vol.340(6130), pp.305-8
    Description: The world needs young people who are skillful in and enthusiastic about science and who view science as their future career field. Ensuring that we will have such young people requires initiatives that engage students in interesting and motivating science experiences. Today, students can investigate scientific phenomena using the tools, data collection techniques, models, and theories of science in physical laboratories that support interactions with the material world or in virtual laboratories that take advantage of simulations. Here, we review a selection of the literature to contrast the value of physical and virtual investigations and to offer recommendations for combining the two to strengthen science learning.
    Keywords: Laboratories ; User-Computer Interface ; Engineering -- Education ; Physics -- Education ; Science -- Education
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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