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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 25 September 2015, Vol.349(6255), pp.1459
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, 02/06/2015, Vol.347(6222), pp.623-625
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science, March 8, 2013, Vol.339(6124), p.1205(3)
    Description: Because competition decreases inclusive fitness among kin, Hamilton and May predicted that the presence of nearby kin should induce the dispersal of individuals from the natal territory, independent of pressures to avoid inbreeding. Many studies support this landmark prediction, but research over 31 years with prairie dogs reveals the opposite pattern: Young fernates are 12.5 times more likely to disperse in the absence of mother and siblings for one species, and 5.5 times more likely for another species. Such striking patterns probably occur because cooperation among kin is more important than competition among kin for young prairie dogs. The inability to cooperate with close kin, due to their absence, prompts a search for a new territory where cooperation might be Less crucial for survival and reproduction. 10.1126/science.1231689
    Keywords: Prairie Dogs -- Behavior ; Animal Familial Behavior -- Research
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 11 September 2015, Vol.349(6253), pp.1213-6
    Description: Subduction zone megathrust faults produce most of the world's largest earthquakes. Although the physical properties of these faults are difficult to observe directly, their frictional strength can be estimated indirectly by constraining the orientations of the stresses that act on them. A global investigation of stress orientations in subduction zones finds that the maximum compressive stress axis plunges systematically trenchward, consistently making an angle of 45° to 60° with respect to the subduction megathrust fault. These angles indicate that the megathrust fault is not substantially weaker than its surroundings. Together with several other lines of evidence, this implies that subduction zone megathrusts are weak faults in a low-stress environment. The deforming outer accretionary wedge may decouple the stress state along the megathrust from the constraints of the free surface.
    Keywords: Subduction Zones -- Observations ; Faults (Geology) -- Observations;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 29 March 2013, Vol.339(6127), pp.1563-6
    Description: The past decade has brought together substantial advances in human genome analysis and a maturation of understanding of tumor biology. Although there is much progress still to be made, there are now several prominent examples in which tumor-associated somatic mutations have been used to identify cellular signaling pathways in tumors. This in turn has led to the development of targeted therapies, with somatic mutations serving as genomic predictors of tumor response and providing new leads for drug development. There is also a realization that germline DNA variants can help optimize cancer drug dosing and predict the susceptibility of patients to the adverse side effects of these drugs-knowledge that ultimately can be used to improve the benefit:risk ratio of cancer treatment for individual patients.
    Keywords: Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Biomarkers, Tumor -- Genetics ; Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science, August 1, 2014, Vol.345(6196), p.566(5)
    Description: During limb development, digits emerge from the undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue that constitutes the limb bud. It has been proposed that this process is controlled by a self-organizing Turing mechanism, whereby diffusible molecules interact to produce a periodic pattern of digital and interdigital fates. However, the identities of the molecules remain unknown. By combining experiments and modeling, we reveal evidence that a Turing network implemented by Bmp, Sox9, and Wnt drives digit specification. We develop a realistic two-dimensional simulation of digit patterning and show that this network, when modulated by morphogen gradients, recapitulates the expression patterns of Sox9 in the wild type and in perturbation experiments. Our systems biology approach reveals how a combination of growth, morphogen gradients, and a self-organizing Turing network can achieve robust and reproducible pattern formation. 10.1126/science.1252960
    Keywords: Turing Machine (Mathematical Model) -- Usage ; Extremities (Anatomy) -- Physiological Aspects ; Extremities (Anatomy) -- Growth ; Human Physical Development -- Research ; Physiological Research
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science, Feb 22, 2013, Vol.339(6122), p.953(5)
    Description: We document that China's One-Child Policy (OCP), one of the most radical approaches to limiting population growth, has produced significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals. Our data were collected from economics experiments conducted with 421 individuals born just before and just after the OCP's introduction in 1979. Surveys to elicit personality traits were also used. We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society. 10.1126/science.1230221
    Keywords: One Child Policy
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, April 2013, Vol.69(4), pp.817-827
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06065.x/abstract Byline: Susan L. Tame(1) Keywords: continuing professional education; doctor-nurse relationship; nurses; nursing; perioperative; qualitative; UK Tame S.L. (2013) The effect of continuing professional education on perioperative nurses' relationships with medical staff: findings from a qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing 69(4), 817-827. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06065.x Abstract Aims. To report perceived changes to UK perioperative nurses' relationships with medical staff following periods of formal, university-based study. Background. Continuing professional development is considered important for nursing internationally; however, practice changes may not result following formal study. The literature did not describe perioperative nurses' experiences of formal study, and it was believed differences may exist due to hierarchical interprofessional relationships in the operating theatre. Design. Descriptive, qualitative. Methods. Unstructured interviews (N = 23) were conducted between 2006-2007 with a purposive sample of perioperative nurses who had recent experience of continuing professional education. All participants were employed by one National Health Service Trust in the North of England, UK. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed fully into the ethnograph computer-assisted qualitative data analysis programme and data coded and analysed to identify themes. Findings. The findings indicated that whilst continuing professional education did not have a direct impact on practice, development of increased knowledge and confidence facilitated participants' collaboration with and questioning of medical colleagues. Such increased interprofessional collaboration was attributed to indirectly enhancing patient care. Conclusion. Continuing professional education appeared to lead to intrinsic changes to practitioners rather than direct behavioural change. Nurses' increased knowledge and confidence affected the balance of power in the doctor-nurse relationship in British perioperative environments. This paper is of significance to perioperative nursing and may be transferable to other areas of care. Author Affiliation: (1)Susan Louise Tame PhD RN PGCE (FE) Lecturer Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Hull, UK Correspondence: (*) S.L. Tame: e-mail: s.tame@hull.ac.uk Accepted for publication 12 May 2012
    Keywords: Continuing Professional Education ; Doctor–Nurse Relationship ; Nurses ; Nursing ; Perioperative ; Qualitative ; Uk
    ISSN: 0309-2402
    E-ISSN: 1365-2648
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  • 9
    In: Nature, 2014, Vol.506(7489), p.409
    Description: Certainly, the question posed by journalists in response to an extreme weather event - "Is this caused by climate change?" - is sensible and good news. Such questioning implicitly accepts the basic science that the climate is changing and that human activity...
    Keywords: Climate Change–Statistics & Numerical Data ; Dissent & Disputes–Standards ; Floods–Standards ; Great Britain–Standards ; Journalism–Standards ; Mass Media–Standards ; Public Opinion–Standards ; Rain–Standards ; Reproducibility of Results–Standards ; Uncertainty–Standards ; United Kingdom–UK ; Climate Change ; Global Warming ; Floods ; Environmental Protection ; Rain ; Science ; Studies ; Debates;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science, 05/29/2015, Vol.348(6238), pp.958-963
    Description: Before the polio virus is even in the grave, a small cadre of disease fighters is itching to set the next global eradication target: measles. The case is compelling. Measles killed 145,000 children last year in poor countries and left many more blind, deaf, or disabled. A cheap and effective vaccine has long been on the shelves; numerous expert panels have deemed measles eradication feasible, although daunting-it is the most contagious virus on Earth. But the biggest obstacle to measles eradication is polio, which hasn't disappeared as it was supposed to do in 2000. Skeptics question whether a measles initiative would fall down the same rabbit hole as did the polio effort, which has spent billions of dollars and nearly 3 decades chasing the last few cases, only to see them disappear around the corner. Maybe it is time, they say, to settle for keeping measles cases really low but not trying to get to zero.
    Keywords: Measles ; Vaccines ; Children ; Poliovirus ; Human Diseases;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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