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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 18 January 2018, Vol.122(2), pp.527-533
    Description: Although the (111) surface of FeO (magnetite) has been investigated for more than 20 years, substantial controversy remains in the literature regarding the surface termination proposed based on structural and adsorption studies. The present article provides density functional theory results that allow to rationalize experimental results of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption studies on CO adsorption, thus leading to a unified picture in which the FeO(111) surface is terminated by a / monolayer of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe ions on top of a close-packed oxygen layer as previously determined by low energy electron diffraction. However, surface defects play a crucial role in adsorption properties and may dominate chemical reactions on FeO(111) when exposed to the ambient.
    Keywords: Chemical Reactions – Usage ; Cobalt – Chemical Properties ; Iron Compounds – Chemical Properties ; Surface Science – Analysis;
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 2
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2010, Vol.363(27), pp.2621-2627
    Description: Parapoxviruses are a genus of the double-stranded DNA family of poxviruses that infect ruminants, and zoonotic transmission to humans often results from occupational exposures. Parapoxvirus infection in humans begins with an incubation period of 3 to 7 days, followed by the development of one or more erythematous maculopapular lesions that evolve over the course of several weeks into nodules. In 2009, parapoxvirus infection was diagnosed in two deer hunters in the eastern United States after the hunters had field-dressed white-tailed deer. We describe the clinical and pathological features of these infections and the phylogenetic relationship of a unique strain of parapoxvirus to other parapoxviruses. Deer populations continue to increase, leading to the possibility that there will be more deer-associated parapoxvirus infections. Two deer hunters presented with a violaceous nodule on a finger several weeks after field-dressing white-tailed deer. Electron microscopy revealed ovoid virions suggestive of parapoxvirus. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the causative agent was a unique parapoxvirus. In early November 2008, a 52-year-old wildlife biologist was deer hunting in eastern Virginia when he nicked his right index finger while dressing a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The deer appeared to be healthy at the time of death, with no lesions on its muzzle or head. The cut on the hunter's finger did not heal, and within 2 weeks, a tender raised area had begun to form at the wound site. The hunter reported having had no pain or itching at the site and noted no other lesions. He had no fever or other symptoms of systemic illness. By the second week of December 2008, the lesion at the wound site had enlarged to form a violaceous nodule (Figure 1A), and the patient sought medical attention.
    Keywords: Deer -- Virology ; Parapoxvirus -- Genetics ; Poxviridae Infections -- Transmission ; Skin -- Pathology ; Zoonoses -- Transmission;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, November 2012, Vol.206(9), pp.1372-85
    Description: Progressive vaccinia (PV) is a rare but potentially lethal complication that develops in smallpox vaccine recipients with severely impaired cellular immunity. We describe a patient with PV who required treatment with vaccinia immune globulin and who received 2 investigational agents, ST-246 and CMX001. We describe the various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and immunologic studies that provided guidance to escalate and then successfully discontinue therapy. Despite development of resistance to ST-246 during treatment, the patient had resolution of PV. This case demonstrates the need for continued development of novel anti-orthopoxvirus pharmaceuticals and the importance of both intensive and timely clinical and laboratory support in management of PV.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Viral -- Administration & Dosage ; Antiviral Agents -- Administration & Dosage ; Benzamides -- Administration & Dosage ; Cytosine -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Isoindoles -- Administration & Dosage ; Organophosphonates -- Administration & Dosage ; Vaccinia -- Diagnosis ; Vaccinia Virus -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 4
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2015, Vol. 60(2), pp.195-202
    Description: The novel poxvirus described here can infect humans and may be associated with equine contact. It causes an infection that appears to mimic the symptoms and clinical course typical of nondisseminated, lesion-associated poxvirus infections such as those caused by parapoxviruses. Background.  Some human poxvirus infections can be acquired through zoonotic transmission. We report a previously unknown poxvirus infection in 2 patients, 1 of whom was immunocompromised; both patients had known equine contact. Methods.  The patients were interviewed and clinical information was abstracted from the patients’ medical files. Biopsies of the skin lesions were collected from both patients for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Oral and skin swabs were collected from animals with frequent contact with the patients, and environmental sampling including rodent trapping was performed on the farm where the immunosuppressed patient was employed. “Pan-pox and high Guanine-cytosine” polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on patient, animal, and environmental isolates. Amplicon sequences of the viral DNA were used for agent identification and phylogenetic analysis. Results.  Specimens from both human cases revealed a novel poxvirus. The agent shares 88% similarity to viruses in the Parapoxvirus genus and 78% to those in the Molluscipoxvirus genus but is sufficiently divergent to resist classification as either. All animal and environmental specimens were negative for poxvirus and both patients had complete resolution of lesions. Conclusions.  This report serves as a reminder that poxviruses should be considered in cutaneous human infections, especially in individuals with known barnyard exposures. The clinical course of the patients was similar to that of parapoxvirus infections, and the source of this virus is currently unknown but is presumed to be zoonotic. This report also demonstrates the importance of a comprehensive approach to diagnosis of human infections caused by previously unknown pathogens.
    Keywords: Poxvirus ; Skin Infection ; Parapoxvirus ; Immunocompromised ; Imiquimod
    ISSN: 1058-4838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Human Genetics, 07 March 2013, Vol.92(3), pp.468-474
    Description: Cobblestone brain malformation (COB) is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by protrusions of neurons beyond the first cortical layer at the pial surface of the brain. It is usually seen in association with dystroglycanopathy types of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) and ocular abnormalities termed muscle-eye-brain disease. Here we report homozygous deleterious mutations in , encoding laminin subunit beta-1, in two families with autosomal-recessive COB. Affected individuals displayed a constellation of brain malformations including cortical gyral and white-matter signal abnormalities, severe cerebellar dysplasia, brainstem hypoplasia, and occipital encephalocele, but they had less apparent ocular or muscular abnormalities than are typically observed in COB. LAMB1 is localized to the pial basement membrane, suggesting that defective connection between radial glial cells and the pial surface mediated by LAMB1 leads to this malformation.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0002-9297
    E-ISSN: 1537-6605
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, 11/01/2011, Vol.204(9), pp.1321-1327
    Description: Cutaneous anthrax outbreaks occurred in Bangladesh from August to October 2009. As part of the epidemiological response and to confirm anthrax diagnoses, serum samples were collected from suspected case patients with observed cutaneous lesions. Anthrax lethal factor (LF), anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) levels were determined in acute and convalescent serum of 26 case patients with suspected cutaneous anthrax from the first and largest of these outbreaks. LF (0.005-1.264 ng/mL) was detected in acute serum from 18 of 26 individuals. Anti-PA IgG and TNA were detected in sera from the same 18 individuals and ranged from 10.0 to 679.5 μg/mL and 27 to 593 units, respectively. Seroconversion to serum anti-PA and TNA was found only in case patients with measurable toxemia. This is the first report of quantitative analysis of serum LF in cutaneous anthrax and the first to associate acute stage toxemia with subsequent antitoxin antibody responses.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 7
    In: Nature, 2012, Vol.492(7429), p.423
    Description: Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments (1). Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1-2 Myr ago (2), conferred about 30-36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica (3) among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibred Gossypium herbaceum Aand non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum [A.sub.t][D.sub.t] (in which 't' indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and the Old World A-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups.
    Keywords: Cotton (Plant) -- Physiological Aspects ; Cotton (Plant) -- Genetic Aspects ; Polyploidy -- Research ; Cotton (Fiber) -- Genetic Aspects ; Cotton (Fiber) -- Physiological Aspects ; Genetic Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 8
    In: ISRN Nanomaterials, 2012, Vol.2012, 13 pages
    Description: nanoparticles were prepared through the Pechini process and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectrometer, and differential thermal analysis (TG-DSC) analyses. The polyesterification reaction, as the starting step, has a profound influence on the dispersion of the resulting nanoparticles. The molar ratios CA : TM = 2 and EG : CA = 1.5 are favorable for the preparation of nanoparticles having average particles size ranging from 2 to 9 nm. Meanwhile, the molar ratios CA : TM = 4 and EG : CA = 0.19 are favorable for the preparation of nanoparticles having an average particles size ranging from 11 to 29 nm. For the calcination step, increased calcination time (eight hours) at 500°C is advantageous for allowing the monometallic phases enough time to transform into the desired bimetallic phase.
    Keywords: Engineering;
    E-ISSN: 2090-8741
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Human Genetics, 07 March 2013, Vol.92(3), pp.392-400
    Description: The corpus callosum is the principal cerebral commissure connecting the right and left hemispheres. The development of the corpus callosum is under tight genetic control, as demonstrated by abnormalities in its development in more than 1,000 genetic syndromes. We recruited more than 25 families in which members affected with corpus callosum hypoplasia (CCH) lacked syndromic features and had consanguineous parents, suggesting recessive causes. Exome sequence analysis identified mutations at the initiator methionine codon in four different families. is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a poorly annotated 126 amino acid protein of unknown function. This protein is without significant paralogs but has been tightly conserved across evolution. Our data suggest that this conserved gene is required for development of the human corpus callosum.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0002-9297
    E-ISSN: 1537-6605
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Human Genetics, 04 August 2016, Vol.99(2), pp.501-510
    Description: Cell division terminates with cytokinesis and cellular separation. Autosomal-recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain and head size at birth in addition to non-progressive intellectual disability. MCPH is genetically heterogeneous, and 16 loci are known to be associated with loss-of-function mutations predominantly affecting centrosomal-associated proteins, but the multiple roles of centrosomes in cellular function has left questions about etiology. Here, we identified three families affected by homozygous missense mutations in , encoding citron rho-interacting kinase (CIT), which has established roles in cytokinesis. All mutations caused substitution of conserved amino acid residues in the kinase domain and impaired kinase activity. Neural progenitors that were differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from individuals with these mutations exhibited abnormal cytokinesis with delayed mitosis, multipolar spindles, and increased apoptosis, rescued by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Our results highlight the importance of cytokinesis in the pathology of primary microcephaly.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0002-9297
    E-ISSN: 1537-6605
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