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  • 1
    Lexicon Article
    Lexicon Article
    Language: English
    In: Encyclopedia of Trauma: An Interdisciplinary Guide
    Keywords: Mental Health ; Trauma (Psychology) ; Medical Care ; Public Health Schools ; Public Health ; Health Policy ; Public Health Personnel ; Public Health Law
    ISBN: 978-1-4522-6668-8
    Source: Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(8), p.e12340
    Description: Traditional methods of computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR) in mortality studies rely upon a number of conventional statistical propositions to estimate confidence intervals for obtained values. Those propositions include a common but arbitrary choice of the confidence level and the assumption that observed number of deaths in the test sample is a purely random quantity. The latter assumption may not be fully justified for a series of periodic “overlapping” studies. We propose a new approach to evaluating the SMR, along with its confidence interval, based on a simple re-sampling technique. The proposed method is most straightforward and requires neither the use of above assumptions nor any rigorous technique, employed by modern re-sampling theory, for selection of a sample set. Instead, we include all possible samples that correspond to the specified time window of the study in the re-sampling analysis. As a result, directly obtained confidence intervals for repeated overlapping studies may be tighter than those yielded by conventional methods. The proposed method is illustrated by evaluating mortality due to a hypothetical risk factor in a life insurance cohort. With this method used, the SMR values can be forecast more precisely than when using the traditional approach. As a result, the appropriate risk assessment would have smaller uncertainties.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Evidence-based Healthcare -- Statistical Methodologies And Health Informatics ; Non-clinical Medicine -- Research Methods ; Public Health And Epidemiology -- Global Health
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e42793
    Description: High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective components of subjective well-being behave differently in relation to different indicators of social capital and social support across countries.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, March 22, 2012, Vol.12, p.225
    Description: Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH). The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7%) but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months), sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8%) knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection, and there was very low (13.2%) condom use among the sexually experienced. Conclusions Results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention programs tailored to YHH that provide knowledge, enhance negotiations skills, and increase the perception of HIV infection risk among YHH in Rwanda.
    Keywords: Sexual Behavior -- Demographic Aspects ; Risk Taking -- Demographic Aspects ; Adolescent Psychology -- Research
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, March 22, 2012, Vol.12, p.225
    Description: Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH). The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7%) but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months), sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8%) knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection, and there was very low (13.2%) condom use among the sexually experienced. Conclusions Results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention programs tailored to YHH that provide knowledge, enhance negotiations skills, and increase the perception of HIV infection risk among YHH in Rwanda.
    Keywords: Child Health -- Social Aspects ; Child Health -- Health Aspects ; Hiv Infections -- Social Aspects ; Hiv Infections -- Health Aspects ; Orphans -- Social Aspects ; Orphans -- Health Aspects ; Orphans -- Surveys ; Orphans -- Sexual Behavior ; Condoms -- Social Aspects ; Condoms -- Health Aspects ; Youth -- Surveys ; Youth -- Sexual Behavior ; Youth -- Social Aspects ; Youth -- Health Aspects ; Medical Research -- Social Aspects ; Medical Research -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, 01 March 2012, Vol.12(1), p.225
    Description: Abstract Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH). The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b) determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c) determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7%) but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months), sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8%) knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection, and there was very low (13.2%) condom use among the sexually experienced. Conclusions Results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention programs tailored to YHH that provide knowledge, enhance negotiations skills, and increase the perception of HIV infection risk among YHH in Rwanda.
    Keywords: Youth Heads of Household ; HIV/AIDS ; Sexual Risk Behaviors ; Gender Differences ; Rwanda ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(2)
    Description: Objective The paper projects the contribution to 2011–2015 international targets of three major pandemics by programs in 140 countries funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the largest external financier of tuberculosis and malaria programs and a major external funder of HIV programs in low and middle income countries. Design Estimates, using past trends, for the period 2011–2015 of the number of persons receiving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, tuberculosis case detection using the internationally approved DOTS strategy, and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to be delivered by programs in low and middle income countries supported by the Global Fund compared to international targets established by UNAIDS, Stop TB Partnership, Roll Back Malaria Partnership and the World Health Organisation. Results Global Fund-supported programs are projected to provide ARV treatment to 5.5–5.8 million people, providing 30%–31% of the 2015 international target. Investments in tuberculosis and malaria control will enable reaching in 2015 60%–63% of the international target for tuberculosis case detection and 30%–35% of the ITN distribution target in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Global Fund investments will substantially contribute to the achievement by 2015 of international targets for HIV, TB and malaria. However, additional large scale international and domestic financing is needed if these targets are to be reached by 2015.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Science Policy ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(2)
    Description: Background In 2008, over 300,000 women died during pregnancy or childbirth, mostly in poor countries. While there are proven interventions to make childbirth safer, there is uncertainty about the best way to deliver these at large scale. In particular, there is currently a debate about whether maternal deaths are more likely to be prevented by delivering effective interventions through scaled up facilities or via community-based services. To inform this debate, we examined delivery location and attendance and the reasons women report for giving birth at home. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of maternal delivery data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 48 developing countries from 2003 to the present. We stratified reported delivery locations by wealth quintile for each country and created weighted regional summaries. For sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where death rates are highest, we conducted a subsample analysis of motivations for giving birth at home. In SSA, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, more than 70% of all births in the lowest two wealth quintiles occurred at home. In SSA, 54.1% of the richest women reported using public facilities compared with only 17.7% of the poorest women. Among home births in SSA, 56% in the poorest quintile were unattended while 41% were attended by a traditional birth attendant (TBA); 40% in the wealthiest quintile were unattended, while 33% were attended by a TBA. Seven per cent of the poorest women reported cost as a reason for not delivering in a facility, while 27% reported lack of access as a reason. The most common reason given by both the poorest and richest women for not delivering in a facility was that it was deemed “not necessary” by a household decision maker. Among the poorest women, “not necessary” was given as a reason by 68% of women whose births were unattended and by 66% of women whose births were attended. Conclusions In developing countries, most poor women deliver at home. This suggests that, at least in the near term, efforts to reduce maternal deaths should prioritize community-based interventions aimed at making home births safer.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Lexicon Article
    Lexicon Article
    Language: English
    In: Encyclopedia of Trauma: An Interdisciplinary Guide
    Keywords: Secondary Traumatic Stress ; Trauma (Psychology) ; Social Media ; Social Participation ; Social Networks ; Television News ; Disaster Relief
    ISBN: 978-1-4522-6668-8
    Source: Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)
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  • 10
    Lexicon Article
    Lexicon Article
    Language: English
    In: Encyclopedia of Trauma: An Interdisciplinary Guide
    Keywords: Mass Casualties ; Trauma (Psychology) ; Emergency Assistance ; Cultural Psychology ; Public Health ; Mortality ; Natural Disaster Damage ; Natural Disasters ; Identification (Physical) ; Forensic Sciences ; Mortuary Practice
    ISBN: 978-1-4522-6668-8
    Source: Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)
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