Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Sept, 2013, Vol.152, p.12(6)
To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.06.002 Byline: Gholamreza Sadeghi, Jack F. Schijven, Thilo Behrends, S. Majid Hassanizadeh, Martinus Th. van Genuchten Abstract: Knowledge of virus removal in subsurface environments is pivotal for assessing the risk of viral contamination of water resources and developing appropriate protection measures. Columns packed with sand are frequently used to quantify attachment, detachment and inactivation rates of viruses. Since column transport experiments are very laborious, a common alternative is to perform batch experiments where usually one or two measurements are done assuming equilibrium is reached. It is also possible to perform kinetic batch experiments. In that case, however, it is necessary to monitor changes in the concentration with time. This means that kinetic batch experiments will be almost as laborious as column experiments. Moreover, attachment and detachment rate coefficients derived from batch experiments may differ from those determined using column experiments. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of kinetic batch experiments and investigate the effects of different designs of the batch experiments on estimated attachment, detachment and inactivation rate coefficients. The experiments involved various combinations of container size, sand-water ratio, and mixing method (i.e., rolling or tumbling by pivoting the tubes around their horizontal or vertical axes, respectively). Batch experiments were conducted with clean quartz sand, water at pH7 and ionic strength of 20mM, and using the bacteriophage PRD1 as a model virus. Values of attachment, detachment and inactivation rate coefficients were found by fitting an analytical solution of the kinetic model equations to the data. Attachment rate coefficients were found to be systematically higher under tumbling than under rolling conditions because of better mixing and more efficient contact of phages with the surfaces of the sand grains. In both mixing methods, more sand in the container yielded higher attachment rate coefficients. A linear increase in the detachment rate coefficient was observed with increased solid-water ratio using tumbling method. Given the differences in the attachment rate coefficients, and assuming the same sticking efficiencies since chemical conditions of the batch and column experiments were the same, our results show that collision efficiencies of batch experiments are not the same as those of column experiments. Upscaling of the attachment rate from batch to column experiments hence requires proper understanding of the mixing conditions. Because batch experiments, in which the kinetics are monitored, are as laborious as column experiments, there seems to be no major advantage in performing batch instead of column experiments. Article History: Received 18 March 2013; Revised 11 June 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013
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