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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: South Central Review, 1 December 1988, Vol.5(4), pp.53-59
    Keywords: Political science -- Government -- Political systems
    ISSN: 07436831
    E-ISSN: 15493377
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Virology, 1988, Vol.167(1), pp.166-175
    Description: The circular single-stranded viral DNA (ssDNA) of filamentous phage is oriented in the virus with a hairpin forming sequence called mos at the leading end of the virion-the end that emerges from the cell first. In the experiments that originally defined mos it was also found to enhance virion production 100-fold, though in other circumstances it has no such effect. Using a new electron-microscopic method, we have ascertained the orientation of ssDNA in phage having mutations involving mos and other viral functions, and also in the intracellular precursor to the virion-a rod-shaped complex between the ssDNA and the phage-encoded gene-V protein, pV. The results show (1) that the ssDNA is oriented in the complex as in the virion, with mos at one end; (2) that orientation is maintained even if assembly is not mediated by the complex; (3) that orientation is manifested in polyphage--abnormal particles in which many unit-length ssDNA molecules are sheathed in a single, extremely long capsid; (4) that orientation is imposed by mos itself (or something very nearby) since it disappears in a mos deletion; and (5) that a 229-base segment including the minus strand of mos is also effective at imposing orientation. On the basis of our findings, we speculate that mos determines orientation in two stages, one imposing an axis on the ssDNA loop during formation of the pV/ssDNA complex, the other imposing a direction on the loop during initiation of particle assembly. The sequence requirements for the two stages may be different.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0042-6822
    E-ISSN: 1096-0341
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 1988, Vol.18(3), pp.245-257
    Description: To study the mechanisms by which certain West African taurine cattle are able to resist trypanosomiasis, the disease course and several immune parameters were examined in eleven Baoulé and five Zebu cattle after infection with tsetse-transmitted T. congolense (clone 1180 of stock Serengeti/71/STIB/212). All animals showed a similar onset of parasitemia but subsequently a continuum of disease was observed ranging from four Baoulé which were mildly susceptible (controlled parasitemia by week 10 post-infection and had little anemia) to two Baoulé and two Zebu which were highly susceptible (unable to control parasitemia, severe anemia leading to death or drug treatment in extremis). The remaining five Baoulé and three Zebu showed intermediate susceptibility. Although the most resistant animals were of the Baoulé breed, there was a spectrum of susceptibility which crossed the two breeds. Neutralizing antibody to metacyclic trypanosome antigens was detectable by day 18 in four of the mildly susceptible and three of the highly susceptible individuals but such antibodies were delayed in the remaining one severely susceptible animal. Neutralizing antibodies to antigenic variants of the first peak of blood trypanosomes were of significantly higher titre and appeared earlier in the four mildly susceptible as opposed to the highly susceptible animals. No differences in lymphocyte in vitro mitogen responses were observed in these animals except shortly before death in those severely affected. In vitro lymphocyte responses to allogeneic cells did appear to correlate with disease severity, in that animals with mild disease showed little immunosuppression of this response whilst in severely affected individuals the response was almost ablated.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-2427
    E-ISSN: 1873-2534
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  • 4
    In: The New York Times, May 5, 1988, Vol.137, p.26(N) pA30(L)
    Keywords: Employment Discrimination -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Hiv -- Testing ; Aids (Disease) -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Work Environment -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Aids Patients -- Civil Rights
    ISSN: 0362-4331
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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