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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics, 01 June 2012, Vol.8(6), p.e1002782
    Description: RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III), a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo. Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within the coding region of its own mRNA. Moreover, we identified a positive effect of RNase III on protein synthesis based on novel mechanisms. RNase III-mediated cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) enhanced the stability and translation of cspA mRNA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved overlapping 5'UTRs of divergently transcribed genes to generate leaderless mRNAs, which constitutes a novel way to co-regulate neighboring genes. In agreement with recent findings, low abundance antisense RNAs covering 44% of the annotated genes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation with RNase III mutant proteins. Thus, in addition to gene regulation, RNase III is associated with RNA quality control of pervasive transcription. Overall, this study illustrates the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNase III.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 15537390
    E-ISSN: 1553-7404
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, May 1990, Vol.15(6), pp.1409-1416
    Description: Because comprehensive normal data and the effect of observer variability for echocardiography evaluation of regional left ventricular wall motion are not available in children or newborns, left ventricular wall motion was assessed by measuring regional area change. The study group comprised 55 infants and children with a normal heart: 15 neonates (〉1 week to 〈1 month old), 10 infants (〉1 month to 〈1 year old) and 30 children, 10 each in the age group 〉1 year to 〈5 years, 〉5 to ≤10 years and 〉10 years. A combination of parasternal, apical and subcostal two-dimensional echocardiographic views was applied. After planimetry of an end-systolic and end-diastolic frame, the left ventricle was divided into eight equal segments and the percent area change calculated. Both a fixed reference and a floating system correcting for translation and rotation were applied.Intraobserver variability for percent area change measurements was 2.8 ± 0.9% and 3.8 ±1% for observers 1 and 2, respectively. The mean interobserver difference of regional percent area change was 4.7 ± 1.8%. Normal values for the eight anatomic segments were established in each echocardiographic imaging plane. The overall results were independent of the type of reference system utilized. The subcostal views yielded different results from their parasternal counterparts, probably because of differing imaging planes. These normal values establish a data base in the pediatric age range that can be used to detect abnormal segments in children at risk for developing regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities.
    Keywords: Echocardiography ; Ventricular Function ; Infant, Newborn -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 15583597
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