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  • 1990  (121)
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  • 1990  (121)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Health & social work, November 1990, Vol.15(4), pp.261-70
    Description: Postpartum depression, which affects up to 20 percent of new mothers, is an illness often neglected or dismissed by health professionals, leaving the majority of such mothers and their families untreated and confused. This article describes the reasons postpartum depression frequently goes unrecognized and the characteristics, symptoms, and risk factors that help identify this syndrome. Treatment approaches and interventions, the impact on the family, and the family's involvement in the stages of treatment are addressed. Developing a support group for those experiencing postpartum depression is one way social workers can bring this syndrome to the forefront. Implications for social work practice in identifying, referring, and treating mothers at risk for and currently experiencing postpartum depression are discussed.
    Keywords: Depression -- Therapy ; Puerperal Disorders -- Therapy
    ISSN: 0360-7283
    E-ISSN: 15456854
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 1990, Vol.344(6266), p.537
    Description: The archaeological and hominid site of Border Cave (KwaZulu, South Africa) has a stratigraphic sequence covering the Middle and Later Stone Ages (MSA and LSA). It has been proposed that four hominid specimens recovered there (BC1 and BC2 of uncertain provenance, and BC3 and BC5 recovered from MSA layers) represent very early examples of anatomically modern humans, supporting an early late-Pleistocene appearance of modern Homo sapiens in Africa. This early appearance, however, has been questioned, largely because of doubts about the stratigraphic positions associated with the specimens and because of the lack of a reliable chronology for the stratigraphic sequence. We now report on the first comprehensive radiometric dating analysis of Border Cave, using electron spin resonance (ESR) on teeth within sediment layers. BC3 is likely to be approximately 70-80 kyr old, and BC5, 50-65 kyr old. BC1 and BC2 are almost certainly less than 90 kyr old. These results, although younger than some age estimates, support the early occurrence of anatomically modern humans at Border Cave. In addition, our results suggest that the Howiesons Poort lithic industry (approximately 45-75 kyr) and the MSA-LSA transition (approximately 35 kyr) are younger than often believed.
    Keywords: Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy ; Hominidae ; Paleodontology;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Adolescence, 1990, Vol.25(99), pp.717-24
    Description: Advertisements in magazines read by 12% or more of college students enrolled in an introductory nutrition class were surveyed for hidden food and nutrition messages. Meanings were identified by categories of activities, products, and people. Less than 10% of the ads featuring people fell into food categories. Of these, more were for alcohol and supplements; fewer were for basic or extra-calorie foods. Hidden messages for females could imply beauty through fashion products, beauty aids, and supplements but with a nutrition slimming plan. Males may be receiving a subtle message that food choices do not matter, and that alcohol and supplements are desirable in everyday life.
    Keywords: Advertising As Topic ; Periodicals As Topic ; Nutritional Sciences -- Education
    ISSN: 0001-8449
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Communication Disorders, 1990, Vol.23(3), pp.163-170
    Description: Acutely brain-injured patients (N = 218) in a major state-wide trauma center were subjected to word fluency measures (animal naming & single-letter-based word generation) to determine specific differences in inferred word generation strategies based on severity of cognitive disruption. Ss were 17-50 years of age with high school equivalency or greater, had a cognitive level of IV or greater according to the Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale, & were evaluated within one month of the traumatic event. Frequency counts & chi square analyses revealed significant quantitative decreases based on level of cognitive functioning as compared with established normative data on non-brain-injured individuals. Three strategies (same initial consonant-vowel syllable [see-seed], semantic association [ship-sail], & same initial consonant blend [tree-trick]) were used by all Ss regardless of cognitive severity. Qualitative differences in response patterns were also noted. 3 Tables, 12 References. AA
    Keywords: Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0021-9924
    E-ISSN: 1873-7994
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  • 5
    In: Marketing & Media Decisions, April, 1990, Vol.25(4), p.67(2)
    Keywords: Market Research -- Analysis ; Mass Media Criticism -- Evaluation ; Advertising Media -- Innovations
    ISSN: 0195-4296
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Brain Research, 1990, Vol.514(1), pp.151-154
    Description: Alterations in a low affinity form of the GABA receptor were examined with [ H]bicuculline methylchloride in the adult rat following perinatal exposure to diazepam. Perinatal exposure resulted in a significant reduction in [ H]bicuculline binding in the cingulate cortex. A significant decrease in the ability of GABA to displace bound [ H]bicuculline was observed only in the hypothalamus. The results suggest that the effects of perinatal exposure to diazepam are regionally specific and that benzodiazepine receptors and low affinity GABA receptors are functionally linked during the perinatal period.
    Keywords: Γ-Aminobutyric Acid ; Bicuculline ; Benzodiazepine ; Diazepam ; Cingulate Cortex ; Hypothalamus ; Development ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-8993
    E-ISSN: 1872-6240
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  • 7
    In: NeuroReport, 1990, Vol.1(2), pp.89-92
    Description: ACTIVITY was recorded from 343 units of rostral, mid, and posterolateral thalamus following a conditioned click stimulus (CS). Over 40% of units responded with increased discharge in cats conditioned to blink to the CS. Twenty-nine units with short latency (〈40 ms) responses were injected intracellularly with phaseolus lectin and identified morphologically; 83% had long, thick primary dendrites with smaller secondary branches. Almost half (46%) had larger somata than the largest previously described thalamic neurons of this morphologic classification. The results suggest that a previously unidentified class of oversized cells is likely to contain many short latency, auditory responsive units. A substantial number of these cells (36%) projected extrathalamically into the internal capsule, and thus may constitute a new auditory pathway between thalamus and cortex.
    Keywords: Auditory Perception -- Physiology ; Neurons -- Physiology ; Thalamus -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0959-4965
    E-ISSN: 1473558X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chronobiology International, 01 January 1990, Vol.7(2), pp.89-91
    Description: Chronophysiology relates life processes to time. All processes require movement. Transport of fluids, molecular exchanges, variations in concentration, minute changes in temperature, muscle contractions, etc. are some of its parameters. Quantifying these movements, reporting them as observed changes and using them diagnostically is a highly desirable quest. In this article, the various physiological parameters that lend themselves to ambulant recordings are described with specific information solutions offered by Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0742-0528
    E-ISSN: 1525-6073
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 1990, Vol.122(1), pp.329-338
    Description: Two goals are of central importance to every PWR operator: a wide range of incore fuel management options to achieve economic fuel utilization and good load change capability to meet the present and future needs of the power grid. Both the above goals make demands on the operational margins available to limiting core conditions (LCOs). For a given thermal-hydraulic plant design these margins depend on the reactor instrumentation and control concept. In setting the LCOs in terms of monitoring signal limits, allowances have to be provided for monitoring system imperfections and for transient overshoot of core conditions during load manoeuvers. Siemens-KWU has optimized the design of its PWR I&C systems to minimize these allowances and thereby maximize the margins available for in-core fuel management. The main features of the design are: • - On-line monitoring of local core conditions by in-core detectors. • - Continuous indication of margins to core thermal limits. • - A simple and yet flexible control rod management scheme which achieves optimum control of core power and power distribution with minimum control rod insertion. • - A steam pressure/coolant temperature versus load program (part load diagram) most appropriate for load following operation.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0029-5493
    E-ISSN: 1872-759X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1990, Vol.36(1), pp.169-175
    Description: Perinatal exposure to diazepam has been shown to lead to alterations in motor activity and exploratory behavior in neonatal animals. Exploratory and locomotor behavior have been associated with changes in mesotelencephalic dopamine function. We have therefore examined the effects of perinatal diazepam administration on both exploratory behavior and mesotelencephalic dopamine turnover in the adult rat. Animals exposed to the benzodiazepine during the perinatal period engaged in significantly less exploratory behavior than did control subjects. The diazepam-induced alterations in behavior were developmentally specific: decreased exploratory behavior was observed at 90, but not 60, days of age. At 90 days of age, specific changes in dopamine turnover in diazepam-treated animals were restricted to mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area) sites; alterations in dopamine turnover were not seen in other mesotelencephalic sites examined. The findings indicate that perinatal exposure to benzodiazepines leads to behavioral changes that are present in adulthood. These changes in exploratory behavior may be associated with alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function.
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Gaba ; Benzodiazepine ; Ventral Tegmental Area ; Nucleus Accumbens ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0091-3057
    E-ISSN: 1873-5177
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