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  • 1995  (160)
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  • 1995  (160)
  • 1
    In: British Medical Journal, Nov 4, 1995, Vol.311(7014), p.1193(4)
    Description: Levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women may not have any relation to the risk of death from ischemic heart disease or cardiovascular disease. Researchers administered questionnaires and blood tests to postmenopausal women. Among the 651 women who died during 19 years of follow-up, 158 (24%) died of cardiovascular disease, and 82 (12%) died of ischemic heart disease. Levels of sex hormones, including estrogens and testosterone, were not associated with the risk of death from cardiovascular disease or ischemic heart disease. Some sex hormones were weakly associated with risk factors for heart disease. For example, high androstenedione levels and low estrone levels were associated with high cholesterol levels. High testosterone levels were associated with low diastolic blood pressure. Overall, however, estrogens did not appear to reduce the risk, nor did testosterone appear to increase the risk of heart disease.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases -- Risk Factors ; Postmenopausal Women -- Health Aspects ; Sex Hormones -- Physiological Aspects ; Coronary Heart Disease -- Risk Factors
    ISSN: 1759-2151
    ISSN: 09598146
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Signs, 1 October 1995, Vol.21(1), pp.230-241
    Description: Kathryn Paxton George's article 'Should Feminists Be Vegetarians?' endorses the view that feminists should not be vegetarians. She believes that scientific data on the nutritional value of a vegetarian diet does not include women as so to be a vegetarian is giving in to male definitions. However, she is inconsistent in her definitions of vegetarianism and bases her whole article on criticizing two male theorists while ignoring the wide body of works by women. Therefore, her whole analysis is suspect and women should make their own choices even if they do not involve scientific proof.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Social sciences -- Gender studies -- Feminism ; Philosophy -- Metaphilosophy -- Western philosophy ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical elements ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Environmental studies -- Environmental social sciences -- Environmental gender studies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical elements
    ISSN: 00979740
    E-ISSN: 15456943
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 1995, Vol.257(2), pp.ix-ix
    Keywords: Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Surface & Coatings Technology, 1995, Vol.74, pp.598-603
    Description: Die plasmaunterstützten Technologien können in 6 Gruppen mit unterschiedlichen Anwendungsgebieten eingeteilt werden. Wichtig ist bei allen Plasmaprozessen eine sorgfältige Reinigung der Werkstücke von Ölen und Fertigungshilfsmitteln. Die Feinreinigung kann zusammen mit einer Aktivierung der Oberfläche durch ein spezielles Plasmaverfahren verwirklicht werden. Eine Kombination plasmaunterstützter Prozesse ist das Reinigen mit dem Nitrieren, PVD oder PACVD, das Plasmanitrieren mit Hartstoffbeschichtung oder PVD-Beschichten. Durch diese Kombination können Haftfestigkeitsprobleme gelöst werden. Aus ökonomischen Gründen und wegen der unterschiedlichen technologischen Parameter ist eine Nitrierung in der PVD-Anlage nicht sinnvoll. Zur Beschichtung von komplizierten Profilen ist PACVD günstiger als PVD (Blindlochbeschichtung bei Durchmesser zu Tiefe von 1:5 bei PACVD), allerdings werden oft Chloride eingeschlossen. Die Anlage zur PACVD wird beschrieben. Die Basistechnologie besteht in der Anwendung von gepulstem Gleichstrom mit 5-50 Hz und kathodisch gepoltem Substrat. Der Druck beträgt 10-500 Pa, die Arbeitstemperatur kann auf 500-500 Grad C gesenkt werden. In der Anlage können Reinigung, Plasmanitrieren und PACVD kombiniert werden. Als Beispiel werden Ergebnisse des Vornitrierens von Stählen in Kombination mit PACVD von TiN in Hinblick auf die Oberflächenhärte angegeben. Verbesserungen werden bei Kombination des gepulsten Plasmanitrierens mit gepulstem PACVD im kontinuierlichen Prozeß gesehen. Die Reinigung wird in die Anlage integriert. Weitere Entwicklungen sind bei der Anlagentechnik (Gleichstromgenerator) und der Ökonomie möglich. Vortrag auf der 4. internat. Konf. 'Plasma-Oberflächentechnik, 19.-23. September 1994 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, D.
    Keywords: Pulsed Plasma ; Pacvd Coatings ; Plasma Process Combinations ; Plasma Cleaning ; Plasma Nitriding ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0257-8972
    E-ISSN: 1879-3347
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 29 December 1995, Vol.774, pp.259-70
    Description: In 1986 we reported that high levels of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) reduced the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 242 men and increased the risk in 289 women from the Rancho Bernardo cohort who were followed up for 12 years. We report here an update on the epidemiology of DHEAS and CVD based on a 19-year follow-up of 1,029 men and 942 women aged 30-88 years from the same cohort. In cross-sectional analyses, DHEAS levels decreased with age in both sexes and were lower in women than men. Men who were overweight were more likely to have low DHEAS levels; women who had hypercholesterolemia or hypertension or were nonusers of estrogen therapy had higher DHEAS levels. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking were associated with higher DHEAS levels in both sexes. All differences were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for alcohol intake. All participants were followed for vital status. After 19 years there were 254 CVD deaths in men and 199 CVD deaths in women. DHEAS was not associated with CVD or ischemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in age-adjusted analyses where the comparison group was individuals without CVD or IHD death. In contrast, when the comparison group was survivors, multiply adjusted models showed a statistically significant, modestly reduced risk of fatal CVD (RR = 0.85) in men and a nonsignificant increased risk of fatal CVD (RR = 1.11) in women.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Dehydroepiandrosterone -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Myocardial Ischemia -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 1995, Vol.774(1), pp.259-270
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    ISSN: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMJ, 4 November 1995, Vol.311(7014), p.1193
    Description: : To examine the association between androstenedione, total and bioavailable testosterone, oestrone, and total and bioavailable oestradiol concentrations and the risk of death from cardiovascular and ischaemic heart disease.
    Keywords: Epidemiologic Studies ; Immunology (Including Allergy) ; Drugs: Cardiovascular System ; Menopause (Including HRT) ; Reproductive Medicine ; Ischaemic Heart Disease ; Sexual Health ; Drugs: Endocrine System ; Health Promotion
    ISSN: 0959-8138
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 1468-5833
    E-ISSN: 14685833
    E-ISSN: 17561833
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1995, Vol.95(10), pp.1121-1126
    Description: An alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education centers on understanding and developing skill in implementing a play approach to learning about healthful eating and promoting active play in the context of the child, the family, and the school. The play approach is defined as a process for learning that is intrinsically motivated, enjoyable, freely chosen, nonliteral, safe, and actively engaged in by young learners. Making choices, assuming responsibility for one's decisions and actions, and having fun are inherent components of the play approach to learning. In this approach, internal cognitive transactions and intrinsic motivation are the primary, forces that ultimately determine healthful choices and life habits. Theoretical models of children's learning--the dynamic systems theory and the cognitive-developmental theory of Jean Piaget--provide a theoretical basis for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. The ultimate goal is to develop partnerships of children, families, and schools in ways that promote the well-being of children and translate into healthful life habits. The play approach is an ongoing process of learning that is applicable to learners of all ages. ; references. AVAILABILITY: US (DNAL 389.8 Am34). ; v.1121-1126(10)
    Keywords: Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0002-8223
    E-ISSN: 1878-3570
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    In: Economic Development Review, Spring, 1995, Vol.13(2), p.7(3)
    Description: The retail sector is currently undergoing a significant shift, in large part due to changes in demographics, technology and land use practices. As value-oriented and non-store retailing continue to grow, the industry expects to see a worsening supply situation. Both developers and owners need to gain an insight into the different components of a given market if they are to be competitive in the modern business environment.
    Keywords: Retail Trade -- Management ; Retail Stores
    ISSN: 0742-3713
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Circulation, 15 March 1995, Vol.91(6), pp.1757-60
    Description: High levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) appear to be associated with a reduced risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. We examined the association between baseline DHEAS levels and the 19-year CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality rates in 942 postmenopausal women free of known heart disease at baseline. The 199 CVD deaths and 102 IHD deaths were not related to baseline DHEAS levels. DHEAS was not related to body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, or family history of coronary heart disease, but significantly higher DHEAS levels were found in women who had elevated total or HDL cholesterol or blood pressure, were current smokers, or were nonusers of estrogen replacement therapy. After we adjusted for age, cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, estrogen replacement therapy, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and family history of heart disease, the relative risk of fatal CVD and IHD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.23) and 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.17), respectively, for a 50-microgram/dL decrease in DHEAS. Although higher DHEAS levels were associated with several major CVD risk factors, they were unrelated to the risk of fatal CVD in women.
    Keywords: Postmenopause ; Cardiovascular Diseases -- Mortality ; Dehydroepiandrosterone -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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