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  • 1996  (132)
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Year
  • 1996  (132)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, 1996, Vol.30(3), pp.227-241
    Description: Two electron spin resonance (ESR) dating studies of the late 1970s and early 1980s on speleothems associated with the Petralona hominid cranium yielded age estimates of 350-700 ka and 200 ka, respectively. These dating results are re-assessed in view of more than a decade of progress in ESR dating. The re-assessed values are in reasonable agreement with some independent U-series results on the same material, suggesting an age of 150-250 ka for the speleothems bracketing the cranium.
    Keywords: Esr Dating ; Petralona ; Chronology ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 April 1996, Vol.79(7), pp.3541-3547
    Description: A model is presented to interpret in situ laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) measurements of film growth. The model uses no adjustable parameters and measures film thickness, growth rate, attenuation, and root‐mean‐square (rms) surface roughness in situ and in real time. For the particular case of diamond film growth on silicon substrates, it is shown that the assumptions of the model are satisfied, and that film properties determined in situ by LRI and by various means ex situ are in good agreement. With this model, the evolution of diamond film properties are followed under typical diamond growth conditions using mixtures of CH 4 and H 2 . In agreement with texture formation models, the growth rate and surface roughness were observed to increase as film growth progressed. The growth rate was found to be proportional to CH 4 fraction for CH 4 fractions less than 8.5%. At higher CH 4 fractions, the growth rate decreased and significant attenuation was observed.
    Keywords: Diamond Films -- Analysis ; Crystallization -- Measurement ; Interferometry -- Methods;
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Physical therapy, March 1996, Vol.76(3), pp.286-95
    Description: The purpose of this multiple-subject case report is to describe the physical impairments, disabilities, and handicaps of patients with multiple traumas and pelvic-ring fractures after management with open reduction internal fixation. Nineteen men and 12 women, with a mean age of 38+/-16 years (chi+/-SD), were interviewed and examined at least 1 year (chi+/-14.5 months) after sustaining multiple traumas, including an unstable pelvic-ring fracture that was repaired by open reduction internal fixation. Disabilities and handicaps were assessed using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Assessments of physical performance consisted of lift capacity, the amount of forward bending, and gait. A descriptive analysis by age and pelvic fracture classification is reported. The 50-year-old group had the lowest scores. Subjects with B1-class "open-book" pelvic fractures had a tendency to score higher in individual SIP categories. The average SIP scores of 9.34+/-7.47 for the total SIP score, 7.79+/-6.93 for the physical dimension, and 8.24+/-9.61 for the psychosocial dimension represent mild disability. The mean Oswestry score of 13.26%+/-15.41% also represents mild disability. Some subjects demonstrated impairments, disabilities, and handicaps 1 year postoperatively, but for the most part the subjects recovered almost all lost function. The data and clinical management information can be used as a basis of comparison for treatment and research with these types of patients.
    Keywords: Fracture Fixation, Internal ; Fractures, Closed -- Surgery ; Pelvic Bones -- Injuries
    ISSN: 0031-9023
    E-ISSN: 15386724
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 1996, Vol.382(6591), p.500
    Description: The hominid remains discovered at the Florisbad spring, South Africa, are almost 259,00 years old. According to the last reconstruction in 1983, the Florisbad fossils have an age range estimate of 100,000 to 200,000 years old. Electron spin resonance study and optically stimulated luminescence dating support this age range. The results of the dating studies show that the Florisbad spring was occupied by hominids 125,000 years ago during the last interglacial age.
    Keywords: Archaeological Dating -- Reports ; Prehistoric Peoples -- Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    British Medical Journal Publishing Group
    Language: English
    In: BMJ, 23 March 1996, Vol.312(7033), p.777
    Description: EDITOR,—Paola Muti and Maurizio Trevisan are concerned that the absence of any association between oestrogen concentration and the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in our study may have been due to dissociation of bioavailable oestrogen in the frozen samples over time. The papers they cite raise the possibility of dissociation but do not prove it.
    Keywords: Epidemiologic Studies ; Immunology (Including Allergy) ; Drugs: Cardiovascular System ; Menopause (Including HRT) ; Reproductive Medicine ; Ischaemic Heart Disease ; Sexual Health ; Drugs: Endocrine System ; Health Promotion
    ISSN: 0959-8138
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 1468-5833
    E-ISSN: 14685833
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 05 July 1996, Vol.271(27), pp.16135-8
    Description: Anhydroretinol and 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol, retro-retinoids endogenous to both mammals and insects, act as agonist and antagonist, respectively, in controlling proliferation in lymphoblasts and other retinol-dependent cells. We describe here the identification, purification, cloning, and bacterial expression of the enzyme retinol dehydratase, which converts retinol to anhydroretinol in Spodoptera frugiperda. Retinol dehydratase has nanomolar affinity for its substrate and is, therefore, the first enzyme characterized able to utilize free retinol at physiological intracellular concentrations. The enzyme shows sequence homology to the sulfotransferases and requires 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate for activity.
    Keywords: Hydro-Lyases -- Metabolism ; Spodoptera -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 29 November 1996, Vol.274(5292), pp.1501-3
    Description: From September 1991 to October 1992, the cosmic dust detector on the Ulysses spacecraft recorded 11 short bursts, or streams, of dust. These dust grains emanated from the jovian system, and their trajectories were strongly affected by solar wind magnetic field forces. Analyses of the on-board measurements of these fields, and of stream approach directions, show that stream-associated dust grain masses are of the order of 10(-18) gram and dust grain velocities exceed 200 kilometers per second. These masses and velocities are, respectively, about 10(3) times less massive and 5 to 10 times faster than earlier reported.
    Keywords: Cosmic Dust ; Jupiter
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 01/1996, Vol.44(5), pp.1190-1194
    Description: Undeodorized menhaden oil was stored in the dark at 30 degree C under a headspace of air. Oil samples were removed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of storage and analyzed for peroxide value and headspace volatiles by GC and GC--MS. Total volatiles increased in concentration during the first 2 weeks of storage, fell slightly at week 3, and then rose steadily reaching a second maximum at week 16, before declining again at week 20. Peroxide values exhibited three maxima, at weeks 1, 4, and 12. Several volatiles that are potentially derived from lipoxygenase activity in menhaden were identified in the oil including 1-penten-3-ol, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2,5-octadien-1-ol, 2-nonenal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal. Some volatiles derived from autoxidation are as follows: (E,Z)-2,4-hepadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E,E)-3,5-octadien-2-one. Five of these volatiles reached maximum concentrations by the first or second week of storage. These findings suggest that pro-oxidant mechanisms at work prior to and/or during oil refining lead to rapid buildup of objectionable flavors and aromas in menhaden oil.
    Keywords: Fish Oils ; Storage ; Volatiles ; Oxidation ; Off Flavor ; Taints & Off-Flavors ; Peroxides ; (E)-2-Hexenal ; (Z)-3-Hexen-1-Ol ; 1-Penten-3-Ol ; Off Odor ; Menhaden Oil ; (E)-2-Hexenal ; (Z)-3-Hexen-1-Ol ; 1-Penten-3-Ol ; Menhaden Oil ; Off Odor ; Peroxides;
    ISSN: 0021-8561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of epidemiology, 01 May 1996, Vol.143(9), pp.898-906
    Description: This study describes sex differences in obesity and body fat distribution using commonly used assessment methods in 140 men and 245 women age 65-96 years from Rancho Bernardo, California. Significant correlations were shown among all obesity measures. The waist/hip ratio was more strongly correlated with the truncal fat/leg fat ratio in women than in men. The waist/hip ratio correlated significantly with the subscapular/ triceps skinfold ration in women only. In both sexes, waist circumference was more strongly correlated with body mass index and the percentage of body fat by bioelectric impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry than with the waist/hip ratio. In those aged over 80 years, age stratification showed that the waist/hip ration was not correlated with any other measurement of obesity or fat distribution in men and correlated only with subscapular skinfolds in women. Waist circumference, however, correlated significantly with almost all other measures of central obesity in older and younger men and women. Estimates of upper body (central) fat distribution appear to be age specific. After age 80, the waist/hip ratio is a poor method of assessing central or visceral adiposity, and waist circumference is a better measure of body fat distribution.
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue ; Body Composition ; Body Constitution ; Sex Characteristics ; Obesity -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 14766256
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 1996, Vol.39(7), pp.616-616
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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