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  • 1998  (150)
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  • 1998  (150)
  • 1
    In: Journal of Property Management, May-June, 1998, Vol.63(3), p.92(7)
    Description: Real estate companies should recognize the growing importance of the senior market to their business. Estimates show that the number of people aged 55 to 64 years will increase by 65% from 21.4 million in 1996 to about 35 million by 2010. Meanwhile, the number of people older than 65 years is predicted to increase by 16% from 33.8 million to 39.4 million. Meanwhile, the age brackets below 55 are not estimated to grow as vigorously. Real estate owners and managers can successfully target the senior market by learning this segment's behavioral motivation. An article in American Demographics shows that the segment most likely to hunt for new housing are the Health Indulgers and the Ailing Outgoers while the Healthy Hermits and the Frail Recluses are not likely to leave their current homes.
    Keywords: Real Estate Industry -- Demographic Aspects ; Senior Citizens Housing ; Real Estate ; Housing
    ISSN: 0022-3905
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 03 April 1998, Vol.280(5360), pp.88-91
    Description: Interplanetary and interstellar dust grains entering Jupiter's magnetosphere form a detectable diffuse faint ring of exogenic material. This ring is composed of particles in the size range of 0. 5 to 1.5 micrometers on retrograde and prograde orbits in a 4:1 ratio, with semimajor axes 3 〈 a 〈 20 jovian radii, eccentricities 0. 1 〈 e 〈 0.3, and inclinations i less, similar 20 degrees or i greater, similar 160 degrees. The size range and the orbital characteristics are consistent with in situ detections of micrometer-sized grains by the Galileo dust detector, and the measured rates match the number densities predicted from numerical trajectory integrations.
    Keywords: Cosmic Dust ; Jupiter
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 August 1998, Vol.84(4), pp.1981-1989
    Description: The transition from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline diamond films grown from Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave plasmas has been investigated. Both the cross-section and plan-view micrographs of scanning electron microscopy reveal that the surface morphology, the grain size, and the growth mechanism of the diamond films depend strongly on the ratio of Ar to H 2 in the reactant gases. Microcrystalline grain size and columnar growth have been observed from films produced from Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave discharges with low concentrations of Ar in the reactant gases. By contrast, the films grown from Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave plasmas with a high concentration of Ar in the reactant gases consist of phase pure nanocrystalline diamond, which has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the width of the diffraction peaks and the Raman bands of the as-grown films depends on the ratio of Ar to H 2 in the plasmas and are attributed to the transition from micron to nanometer size crystallites. It has been demonstrated that the microstructure of diamond films deposited from Ar/H 2 /CH 4 plasmas can be controlled by varying the ratio of Ar to H 2 in the reactant gas. The transition becomes pronounced at an Ar/H 2 volume ratio of 4, and the microcrystalline diamond films are totally transformed to nanocrystalline diamond at an Ar/H 2 volume ratio of 9. The transition in microstructure is presumably due to a change in growth mechanism from CH 3 ⋅ in high hydrogen content to C 2 as a growth species in low hydrogen content plasmas.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical, And Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 January 1998, Vol.83(1), pp.540-543
    Description: Nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been synthesized in an Ar–CH 4 microwave discharge, without the addition of molecular hydrogen. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy characterizations show that the films consist of a pure crystalline diamond phase with very small grain sizes ranging from 3 to 20 nm. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrates that the surfaces of the nanocrystalline diamond films remain smooth independent of the film thicknesses. Furthermore, the reactant gas pressure, which strongly affects the concentration of C 2 dimer in the Ar–CH 4 plasma as well as the growth rate of the films, has been found to be a key parameter for the nanocrystalline diamond thin film depositions.
    Keywords: Cross-Disciplinary Physics
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 5
    In: The Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Spring, 1998, Vol.38(2), p.84(19)
    Description: The article questions current biological research in the behavioral field for both its reductionistic thinking as well as its disregard of the developmental process. The process of development cannot be understood merely as an unfolding of genetic forces. Research strategies attempting to do so distort the view of the actual relation of such forces to behavioral events. In doing so, they do violence to our views both of humans and of science. The quest for "objectivity" has blinded us to the obvious facts of our experience. This, in turn, has led to a pervasive misconception that controlling an emotion, such as pain, is the same as understanding what that emotion is as well as sharing it empathically. We have come to think we know what is inborn and innate on the basis of a misconceived view of development. Such thinking expresses a generalized denial and devaluation of feelings.
    Keywords: Developmental Psychology -- Analysis ; Experience -- Psychological Aspects ; Reductionism -- Psychological Aspects
    ISSN: 0022-1678
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 21 September 1998, Vol.73(12), pp.1646-1648
    Description: We have investigated the effect of substrate temperature on the growth rate and properties of nanocrystalline diamond thin films prepared by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition on (100) Si from a 1% methane ( CH 4 ) precursor in argon (Ar). In previous work we have shown that the carbon dimer C 2 is the dominant growth species for this CH 4 /Ar system without the addition of molecular hydrogen. In the present work, the apparent activation energy for this growth process from C 2 was determined from a standard Arrhenius-type analysis of the growth rate data for substrate temperatures between 500 and 900 °C. The measured value of 5.85±0.438  kcal/mol (0.254±0.019  eV/atom ) is shown to be in close agreement with the results of recent modeling studies of the energetics of C 2 addition to the diamond (110)–(1×1): H surface. These results have important implications for low-temperature diamond coating of nonrefractory materials such as glasses.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical And Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 1998 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 29 June 1998, Vol.72(26), pp.3437-3439
    Description: A processing route has been developed to grow bundles of carbon nanotubes on substrates from methane and hydrogen mixtures by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, catalyzed by iron particles reduced from ferric nitrate. Growth takes place at about 900 °C leading to nanotubes with lengths of more than 20 μm and diameters on the nanometer scale.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical And Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 1998 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 07 September 1998, Vol.73(10), pp.1343-1345
    Description: Using ex situ atomic force microscopy, nanometer-scale islands were observed on CdS (0001)A surfaces to appear after deposition of small amounts of CdSe. The sizes of these islands are similar to those reported in atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of uncapped CdSe/ZnSe structures. Investigations by force modulation microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy show, however, that they are difficult to assign to a CdSe Stranski–Krastanow growth. Instead, AFM points to an onset of the island formation with the exposure of the samples to atmosphere. By use of electron microprobe analysis, it is suggested that these islands consist of selenium.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical And Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 1998 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, November 1998, Vol.10(11), pp.3491-3497
    Description: Cell swelling induced by activation of excitatory amino acid receptors is presumably the first step in a toxic cascade that may ultimately lead to cell death. Previously we showed that bath application of ‐methyl‐‐aspartate (NMDA) or kainate (KA) produces swelling of neostriatal cells. The present experiments examined modulation of NMDA and KA‐induced cell swelling by dopamine (DA) and its receptor agonists. Nomarski optics and infra‐red videomicroscopy were utilized to visualize neostriatal medium‐sized neurons in thick slices from rat pups (12–18 postnatal days). Increase in somatic cross‐sectional area served as the indicator of swelling induced by bath application of glutamate receptor agonists. NMDA induced cell swelling in a dose‐dependent manner. Activation of DA receptors in the absence of NMDA did not produce swelling. DA and the D receptor agonist SKF 38393, increased the magnitude of swelling produced by NMDA. This effect was reduced in the presence of the D receptor antagonist, SCH 23390. In contrast, activation of D receptors by quinpirole decreased the magnitude of NMDA‐induced cell swelling. DA slightly attenuated cell swelling induced by activation of KA receptors. Quinpirole produced a significant concentration‐dependent reduction in KA‐induced swelling while SKF38393 increased KA‐induced swelling, but only at a low concentration of KA. Together, these results provide additional support for the hypothesis that the direction of DA modulation depends on the glutamate receptor subtype, as well as the DA receptor subtype activated. One possible consequence of these observations is that endogenous DA may be an important contributing factor in the mechanisms of cell death in Huntington's disease.
    Keywords: Cell Swelling ; Infra‐Red Videomicroscopy ; Kainate ; N ‐Methyl‐ D ‐Aspartate
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Brain Research, 1998, Vol.789(1), pp.74-83
    Description: Recordings were made from 95 units of the dentate nucleus of naive cats to determine if patterns of response to 70 dB clicks could be distinguished from those to another acoustic stimulus (a hiss) of approximately equal sound pressure level. Further studies of an additional 309 units were conducted to determine if unit excitability and the response to clicks changed after Pavlovian conditioning in which blink responses were elicited by the clicks as conditioned stimuli. Over 50% of units tested before conditioning responded to click or hiss with increased activity, and 8% responded in the first 4-8 ms after the onset of the rapidly rising click. Cross-correlation of the respective 160 ms poststimulus histogram averages of mean activity showed dissimilar patterns of response to clicks and hisses (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient + 0.02). Thus the averaged population responses distinguished these stimuli. In addition, individual cells were found in each behavioral state that responded selectively to either click or hiss. After conditioning with click as the conditioned stimulus, the number of units responding in the first 4-8 ms to click increased to 23%. The mean magnitude of activity 4-8 ms after presenting the click increased after conditioning but not after sensitization produced by backward pairing of the stimuli used for conditioning. After backward pairing only 6% of the units responded in the first 4-8 ms to click. The changes in activity after conditioning were accompanied by increases in neural excitability to intracellularly applied depolarizing current. In contrast with the changes in activity, the increases in neural excitability were also found after backward pairing. We conclude that short as well as long latency acoustic transmissions to click change in the dentate nucleus after conditioning, that changes in response to click are expressed in 4-8 ms responsive cells, and that many of these cells have different patterns of spike activity in response to click and hiss. The findings support the hypothesis that the dentate nucleus can play a significant role in short as well as long latency, adaptive acoustic transmission that can enhance the response to an acoustic signal used as a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus.
    Keywords: Hearing ; Auditory Function ; Primary Sensory Pathway ; Subcerebellar Nuclei ; Learning and Memory: Systems and Functions ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-8993
    E-ISSN: 1872-6240
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