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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1998, Vol. 42(10), p.2690
    Description: Protegrins, potent antimicrobial peptides found in porcine leukocytes, have activity against the sexually transmitted pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We tested synthetic protegrin 1 (PG-1) for activity against nine isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid. The test organisms included CIP 542 (the type strain), 35000HP (a human-passaged variant of 35000), 35000HP-RSM2 (an isogenic D-glycero-D-manno-heptosyltransferase mutant of 35000HP), and six clinical isolates. The isolates were epidemiologically unrelated, represented three HindIII ribotypes, and had varying antimicrobial resistance patterns. In bactericidal assays, five isolates were rapidly killed by synthetic PG-1. In radial diffusion assays, all nine isolates were exquisitely sensitive to PG-1. These data highlight the potential of protegrins for development as topical agents to prevent many sexually transmitted diseases, including chancroid.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Mutants ; Bactericides ; Drug Sensitivity Testing ; Chancroid ; Mutants ; Bactericides ; Drug Sensitivity Testing ; Chancroid ; Antibacterial Agents: Others ; Antibacterial & Bactericidal ; HIV-1 ; Protegrin 1 ; Protegrins ; HIV-1 ; Protegrin 1 ; Protegrins ; HIV-1 ; Protegrin 1 ; Protegrins;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 June 1998, Vol.177(6), pp.1608-1613
    Description: Human subjects were infected with Haemophilus ducreyi. All subjects developed papules and were randomized to treatment with a single dose of azithromycin (1 g) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg). At weekly intervals, volunteers were reinoculated with H. ducreyi, and drug concentrations were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). When papules developed, the subjects were treated with antibiotics and dismissed from the study. Eight of the ciprofloxacin-treated subjects developed papules 1 week after the initial treatment, and the ninth subject developed disease 2 weeks after treatment. The 9 azithromycin-treated subjects developed papules 4-10 weeks (mean, 6.8) after the initial treatment (P 〈 .001). Azithromycin was detected in PBMC for 3-6 weeks (mean, 4). Pre-and posttreatment lesions had histology typical of experimental chancroid or were culture positive. Azithromycin prevents experimental chancroid for nearly 2 months. These findings have implications for strategies to prevent chancroid.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmacology -- HIV ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- HIV ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- HIV ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- HIV ; Health sciences -- Medical specialties -- Pathology -- HIV ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- HIV ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Microphysics -- HIV
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 December 1998, Vol.178(6), pp.1684-1687
    Description: Human volunteers were challenged with Haemophilus ducreyi. Twenty subjects were inoculated with 2 doses (~30 cfu) of live and 1 dose of heat-killed bacteria at 3 sites on the arm. Eight subjects were assigned to biopsy 1 or 4 days after inoculation, and 12 were biopsied after they developed a painful pustular lesion or were followed until disease resolved. Papules developed at 95% of 40 sites infected with live bacteria (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.1%-99.4%). In 24 sites followed to end point, 27% of the papules resolved, 69% (95% CI, 47.1%-86.6%) evolved into pustules, and 4% remained at the papular stage. Recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures ranged from 13% to 41%. H. ducreyi was recovered from biopsies of 12 of 15 pustules and 1 of 7 papules, suggesting that H. ducreyi replicates between the papular and pustular stages of disease.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Medical research ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmacology ; Behavioral sciences -- Human behavior -- Social behavior ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology ; Health sciences -- Health and wellness -- Health outcomes
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 December 1998, Vol.178(6), pp.1688-1697
    Description: Previous work in 3 subjects infected for 2 weeks indicated that experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi recruits CD4 cells to the skin at the pustular stage of disease. In order to describe the kinetics of the host response, 23 subjects were infected at 2 sites with a standardized dose of H. ducreyi. Subjects were biopsied 1 or 4 days after inoculation or when they developed a painful pustular lesion (days 7-14). Papules and pustules contained a predominant T cell infiltrate that consisted of CD45RO and CD4 cells of the αβ lineage. Both papules and pustules contained mixed or T helper 1 type cytokine mRNA and interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Although the subjects had no history of chancroid, their immune responses resembled delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions that occurred within 24 h of inoculation and persisted throughout the course of experimental infection.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Lymphocytes ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology -- Lymphocytes ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- Haemophilus ducreyi
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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