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  • 2000  (18)
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  • 2000  (18)
  • 1
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2000, Vol.27(2), pp.111-114
    Description: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:: To study Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenesis, the authors developed an experimental model of infection in human volunteers. The authors analyze their cumulative experience with strain 35000 in the model and calculate the papule and pustule formation rates for estimated delivered doses (EDDs) ranging from 1 cfu to 100 cfu. STUDY DESIGN:: RESULTS:: CONCLUSION:: H ducreyi is highly infectious for humans. Inoculation of an EDD of 1 cfu causes a papule formation rate of 50%. Pustule formation rates are approximately 50% for 27 cfu and 90% for 100 cfu.
    Keywords: Hemophilus Infections -- Research;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2000, Vol. 68(11), p.6441
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) that exhibits extensive homology to Haemophilus influenzae protein 6. We constructed an isogenic PAL mutant (35000HP-SMS4) by the use of a suicide vector that contains lacZ as a counterselectable marker. H. ducreyi 35000HP-SMS4 and its parent, 35000HP, had similar growth rates in broth and similar lipooligosaccharide profiles. 35000HP-SMS4 formed smaller, more transparent colonies than 35000HP and, unlike its parent, was hypersensitive to antibiotics. Complementation of the mutant in trans restored the parental phenotypes. To test whether expression of PAL is required for virulence, nine human volunteers were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with two doses (41 to 89 CFU) of live 35000HP and one dose of heat-killed bacteria on one arm and with three doses (ranging from 28 to 800 CFU) of live 35000HP-SMS4 on the other arm. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent but were significantly smaller at mutant-inoculated sites than at parent-inoculated sites. The pustule formation rate was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.5 to 90.3%) at 18 parent sites and 11% (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.2%) at 27 mutant sites (P 〈 0.0001). The rates of recovery of H. ducreyi from surface cultures were 8% (n = 130; 95% CI, 4.3 to 14.6%) for parent-inoculated sites and 0% (n = 120; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.5%) for mutant-inoculated sites (P 〈 0.001). H. ducreyi was recovered from six of seven biopsied parent-inoculated sites and from one of three biopsied mutant-inoculated sites. Confocal microscopy confirmed that the bacteria present in a mutant inoculation site pustule lacked a PAL-specific epitope. Although biosafety regulations precluded our testing the complemented mutant in humans, these results suggest that expression of PAL facilitates the ability of H. ducreyi to progress to the pustular stage of disease.
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins ; Proteoglycans ; Haemophilus Infections -- Etiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Lipoproteins -- Metabolism ; Peptidoglycan -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Sex Research, 01 February 2000, Vol.37(1), pp.69-75
    Description: This study describes associations of partner-specific relationship characteristics with consistent condom use among 297 young people (ages 13-24) with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Relationship-specific variables were relationship quality, reasons for sex, relationship duration, duration...
    Keywords: Medicine ; Sociology & Social History ; Women'S Studies ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-4499
    E-ISSN: 1559-8519
    Source: Taylor & Francis Medical Library
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Sex Research, 1 February 2000, Vol.37(1), pp.69-75
    Description: This study describes associations of partner-specific relationship characteristics with consistent condom use among 297 young people (ages 13-24) with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Relationship-specific variables were relationship quality, reasons for sex, relationship duration, duration of sexual relationship, coital frequency, "established" versus "new" sexual partner, cohabitation, children, sexual coercion, and drug or alcohol use associated with coitus. Relationship characteristics associated with consistent condom use included lower relationship quality, lower emotional reasons for sex, lower coital frequency, sex with a new partner, noncohabitation, and not having a child with the partner. Controlling for sociodemographic variables, factors exhibiting independent associations with consistent condom use were lower relationship quality, lower coital frequency, and not having a child with the partner. While condom use with potentially high risk new partners is important, other types of relationships are also risky but associated with lower likelihood of consistent condom use. Better understanding of complex relationship characteristics is necessary to improve STD intervention programs.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Sociology & Social History ; Women'S Studies ; Psychology;
    ISSN: 00224499
    E-ISSN: 15598519
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 March 2000, Vol.181(3), pp.1049-1054
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses a conserved hemoglobin-binding outer-membrane protein (HgbA). To test the role of HgbA in pathogenesis, we infected 9 adults with isolate 35000 and its isogenic hgbA-inactivated mutant (FX504) on their upper arms in a double-blinded, escalating dose-response study. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent. The pustule-formation rate was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.8%-78.5%) at parent sites and 0 (95% CI, 0-10.5%) at mutant sites (P 〈 .0001). The recovery rate of H. ducreyi from surface cultures was 16% (n = 142) from parent sites and 0 (n = 213) from mutant sites (P 〈 .0001). H. ducreyi was recovered at biopsy from 6 of 7 parent sites and from 0 of 3 mutant sites. The results indicate that hemoglobin may be a critical source of heme or iron for the establishment of H. ducreyi infection in humans.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmacology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Health and wellness -- Public health -- Haemophilus ducreyi
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2000, Vol. 68(5), p.2602
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses 2 OmpA homologs, designated MOMP and OmpA2, whose genes are arranged in tandem on the chromosome. Northern blot analysis indicated that momp and ompA2 are transcribed independently. Sequences of the momp open reading frame (ORF) lacking the transcriptional start site were amplified by PCR, and an Omega-Km2 cassette was ligated into the ORF. A plasmid containing this construction was electroporated into H. ducreyi 35000HP, and an isogenic MOMP-deficient mutant (35000HP-SMS2) was generated by allele exchange. In Southern blotting, 35000HP-SMS2 contained one copy of the Omega-Km2 cassette in momp. 35000HP and 35000HP-SMS2 had similar outer membrane protein (OMP) and lipooligosaccharide profiles and growth rates except for up-regulation of a putative porin protein in the mutant. Five subjects were inoculated with three doses of live 35000HP-SMS2 on one arm and two doses of live 35000HP and one dose of a heat-killed control on the other arm in a double-blind escalating dose-response trial. Pustules developed at 7 of 10 sites inoculated with 35000HP and at 6 of 15 sites inoculated with 35000HP-SMS2 (P = 0.14). 35000HP and 35000HP-SMS2 were recovered at similar rates from daily surface cultures and semiquantitative cultures. The data suggest that expression of MOMP is not required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in the human model of infection.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    In: Archives of Internal Medicine, May 8, 2000, Vol.160(9), p.1337
    Description: Background: The outcome of aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis is worse in patients with impaired left ventricular function. Such dysfunction in aortic stenosis may be reversible if caused by afterload mismatch, but not if it is caused by superimposed myocardial infarction. Methods: From our echocardiography database, 55 patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area [is less than or equal to] 0.75 [cm.sup.2]) and ejection fractions of 30% or lower who subsequently underwent aortic valve replacement were included. The operative mortality and clinical follow-up were detailed. Results: There were 10 perioperative deaths (operative mortality, 18%). Twenty (36%) of the 55 patients had a prior myocardial infarction. In the 35 patients without prior myocardial infarction, there was only 1 death (3%). In contrast, 9 of 20 patients with prior myocardial infarction died (mortality rate, 45%; P [is less than or equal to] .001). The factors significantly associated with perioperative death on univariate analysis (functional class, mean aortic gradient, and prior myocardial infarction) were entered into a model for stepwise logistic regression. This multivariate analysis showed that only prior myocardial infarction was independently associated with perioperative death (odds ratio, 14.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-92.1; P = .004). Conclusions: The risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and severely reduced left ventricular systolic function is extremely high if the patients have had a prior myocardial infarction. This information should be factored into the risk-benefit analysis that is done preoperatively for these patients, and it may preclude operation for some. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1337-1341
    Keywords: Heart Valve Replacement -- Usage ; Aortic Valve Stenosis ; Surgery
    ISSN: 0003-9926
    E-ISSN: 15383679
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 March 2000, Vol.181(3), pp.1176-1179
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses fine tangled pili, which are composed predominantly of a major subunit (FtpA). Confocal microscopy showed that an FtpA-specific monoclonal antibody bound to bacteria in biopsy samples obtained from infected human volunteers. To test the role of pili in pathogenesis, an isogenic mutant (35000HP-SMS1) was constructed by insertionally inactivating ftpA 35000HP-SMS1 did not express FtpA and was nonpiliated but was otherwise identical to its parent, 35000HP. Seven healthy adults were challenged on the upper arm with the isogenic isolates in a double-blinded, escalating dose-response study. Sites inoculated with the mutant produced papules and pustules at rates similar to the rates observed at sites inoculated with the parent. The recovery rate of H. ducreyi from cultures and the histopathology of biopsy samples obtained from pustules inoculated with 35000HP or 35000HP-SMS1 were similar. Although pili are expressed in vivo, FtpA is not required for pustule formation in the human challenge model.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Microscopy -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, December 2000, Vol.81(12), pp.1563-1566
    Description: Buschbacher R, Koch J, Emsley C, Katz B. Electrodiagnostic reference values for the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve: standardization of a 10-cm distance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1563-6. To derive a normative database for nerve conduction values of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) using a large and varied subject population. Descriptive study. Private office or university-based clinic. Volunteers ( = 213), recruited through advertisements, who met inclusion criteria. Onset latency, peak latency, baseline-to-peak amplitude, peak-to-peak amplitude, area, rise time, duration, side-to-side differences, and the effects of age, race, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI) were investigated on 213 healthy volunteers between the ages of 19 and 79 years. The mean ± SD onset latency was 1.7 ± 0.2ms. The 95th and 97th percentile values for onset latency were 2 and 2.1ms, respectively. Mean peak latency was 2.2 ± 0.2ms. Both the 95th and 97th percentile values for peak latency were 2.5ms. Mean onset to peak amplitude was 18 ± 10μV. The 5th and 3rd percentile values for onset to peak amplitude were 6 and 5μV, respectively. Mean peak-to-peak amplitude was 22 ± 15μV. The 5th and 3rd percentile values for peak-to-peak amplitude were 7 and 6μV, respectively. Mean area was 11 ± 7nV-s, mean rise time was 0.5 ± 0.1ms, and mean duration was 1.1 ± 0.2ms. Mean side-to-side difference was 0.1 ± 0.2ms for onset latency, 0.1 ± 0.2ms for peak latency, 1 ± 12μV for onset to peak amplitude, and 0 ± 17μV for peak-to-peak amplitude. Increasing age and BMI were associated with lower mean amplitudes, but did not affect the lower limits of normal. These normative values will be useful in electrodiagnostic study of the LACN.
    Keywords: Electrodiagnosis ; Nerve Conduction ; Rehabilitation ; Medicine ; Physical Therapy
    ISSN: 0003-9993
    E-ISSN: 1532-821X
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    In: Design Issues, 2000, Vol.16(2), pp.87-89
    ISSN: 0747-9360
    E-ISSN: 1531-4790
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