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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(3), p.1483
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses several putative virulence factors in vitro. Isogenic mutant-to-parent comparisons have been performed in a human model of experimental infection to examine whether specific gene products are involved in pathogenesis. Several mutants (momp, ftpA, losB, lst, cdtC, and hhdB) were as virulent as the parent in the human model, suggesting that their gene products did not play a major role in pustule formation. However, we could not exclude the possibility that the gene of interest was not expressed during the initial stages of infection. Biopsies of pustules obtained from volunteers infected with H. ducreyi were subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Transcripts corresponding to momp, ftpA, losB, lst, cdtB, and hhdA were expressed in vivo. In addition, transcripts for other putative virulence determinants such as ompA2, tdhA, lspA1, and lspA2 were detected in the biopsies. These results indicate that although several candidate virulence determinants are expressed during experimental infection, they do not have a major role in the initial stages of pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Volunteers ; Mutants ; Virulence ; Gene Expression ; Reverse Transcription ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Volunteers ; Mutants ; Virulence ; Gene Expression ; Reverse Transcription ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Momp Gene ; Ftpa Gene ; Losb Gene ; Lst Gene ; Cdtc Gene ; Hhdb Gene ; Ompa2 Gene ; Tdha Gene ; Lspa1 Gene ; Lspa2 Gene ; Momp Gene ; Ftpa Gene ; Losb Gene ; Lst Gene ; Cdtc Gene ; Hhdb Gene ; Ompa2 Gene ; Tdha Gene ; Lspa1 Gene ; Lspa2 Gene ; Antigenic Properties and Virulence ; Bacterial Genetics ; Cdtc Gene ; Ftpa Gene ; Hhdb Gene ; Losb Gene ; Lspa1 Gene ; Lspa2 Gene ; Lst Gene ; Momp Gene ; Ompa2 Gene ; Tdha Gene;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(7), p.4224
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. In the human model of infection, the histopathology of infected sites in part resembles a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In this study, T cells were isolated from skin biopsy specimens obtained from 24 subjects who were infected for 7 to 14 days. One clone and 12 lines that responded to H. ducreyi antigens were obtained from 12 of the subjects. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis showed that the antigen-responsive lines and clone were predominantly CD3 super(+) and CD4 super(+). The lines and clone responded to H. ducreyi antigen in a dose-dependent manner and produced gamma interferon (IFN- gamma ) alone or IFN- gamma and interleukin-10 (IL- 10) but no IL-4 or IL-5 in response to H. ducreyi. Proliferation of T cells was dependent on the presence of autologous antigen- presenting cells. The lines showed little response to antigens prepared from other members of the Pasteurellaceae and responded to different fractions of H. ducreyi separated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We conclude that T cells that recognize H. ducreyi antigens are recruited to sites experimentally infected with the organism. The lack of cross-reactivity to the Pasteurellaceae and the response of the lines to different antigen fractions suggest that subjects are sensitized to H. ducreyi during the course of infection.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Pasteurellaceae ; Lymphocytes T ; Hypersensitivity (Delayed) ; Cytokines ; Interleukin 10 ; Interleukin 4 ; Interleukin 5 ; Lymphocytes T ; Hypersensitivity (Delayed) ; Cytokines ; Interleukin 10 ; Interleukin 4 ; Interleukin 5 ; ^G-Interferon ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Pasteurellaceae ; Bacteria ; Immune Response and Immune Mechanisms ; Function ; Man ; Man ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Pasteurellaceae ; Gamma -Interferon ; Man;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(4), p.2549
    Description: In a previous study, Haemophilus ducreyi was found in the pustule and dermis of samples obtained at the clinical end point in the human model of infection. To understand the kinetics of localization, we examined infected sites at 0, 24, and 48 h after inoculation and at the clinical end point. Immediately after inoculation, bacteria were found predominantly in the dermis but also in the epidermis. Few bacteria were detectable at 24 h; however, by 48 h, bacteria were readily seen in the pustule and dermis. H. ducreyi was associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages in the pustule and at its base, but was not associated with T cells, Langerhans' cells, or fibroblasts. H. ducreyi colocalized with collagen and fibrin but not laminin or fibronectin. Association with phagocytes, collagen, and fibrin was seen as early as 48 h and persisted at the pustular stage of disease. Optical sectioning by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy both failed to demonstrate intracellular H. ducreyi. These data identify collagen and fibrin as potentially important targets of adherence in vivo and strongly suggest that H. ducreyi remains extracellular throughout infection and survives by resisting phagocytic killing in vivo.
    Keywords: Bacterial Adhesion ; Collagen -- Physiology ; Fibrin -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Physiology ; Phagocytes -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(3), p.1488
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi produces an outer membrane protein called DsrA, which is required for serum resistance. An isogenic dsrA mutant, FX517, was constructed previously in H. ducreyi 35000. Compared to its parent, FX517 cannot survive in normal human serum. When complemented in trans with a plasmid containing dsrA, FX517 is converted to a serum-resistant phenotype (C. Elkins, K. J. Morrow, Jr., and B. Olsen, Infect. Immun. 68:1608-1619, 2000). To test whether dsrA was transcribed in vivo, we successfully amplified transcripts in five biopsies obtained from four experimentally infected human subjects. To test whether DsrA was required for virulence, six volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000 and FX517 and observed for papule and pustule formation. Each subject was inoculated with two doses (70 to 80 CFU) of live 35000 and 1 dose of heat-killed bacteria on one arm and with three doses (ranging from 35 to 800 CFU) of live FX517 on the other arm. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent. However, mutant papule surface areas were significantly smaller than parent papules. The pustule formation rate was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 28 to 85%) at 12 parent sites, and 0% (95% CI of 0 to 15%) at 18 mutant sites (P = 0.0004). Although biosafety regulations precluded our testing the complemented mutant in humans, these results suggest that expression of DsrA facilitates the ability of H. ducreyi to progress to the pustular stage of disease.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Genetics ; Chancroid -- Etiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(6), p.4180
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi contains a major glycoform that is immunochemically identical to paragloboside, a glycosphingolipid precursor of major human blood group antigens. We recently identified the gene responsible for the glucosyltransferase activity and constructed an isogenic mutant (35000glu-) deficient in this activity. 35000glu- makes an LOS that consists only of the heptose trisaccharide core and 2-keto-deoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO). For this study, the mutant was reconstructed in the 35000HP (human passaged [HP]) background. Five human subjects were inoculated with 35000HP and 35000HPglu- in a dose-response trial. The pustule formation rates were 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 72.6%) at 10 sites for 35000HP and 46.7% (95% CI, 24.8 to 69.9%) at 15 sites for 35000HPglu-. The histopathology and recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and biopsies obtained from mutant and parent sites were similar. These results indicate that the expression of glycoforms with sugar moieties extending beyond the heptose trisaccharide core is not required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Chancroid -- Physiopathology ; Glucosyltransferases -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(3), p.1938
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi makes cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and hemolysin. In a previous human challenge trial, an isogenic hemolysin-deficient mutant caused pustules with a rate similar to that of its parent. To test whether CDT was required for pustule formation, six human subjects were inoculated with a CDT mutant and parent at multiple sites. The pustule formation rates were similar at both parent and mutant sites. A CDT and hemolysin double mutant was constructed and tested in five additional subjects. The pustule formation rates were similar for the parent and double mutant. These results indicate that neither the expression of CDT, nor that of hemolysin, nor both are required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Bacterial Toxins -- Biosynthesis ; Chancroid -- Pathology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Hemolysin Proteins -- Biosynthesis;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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