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  • 2002  (7)
  • Cinatl, J.  (7)
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  • 2002  (7)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, February 2002, Vol.30(1), pp.54-58
    Description: BACKGROUNDIntraarterial chemotherapy of oral and oropharyngeal cancer with cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) has experienced a revival in the last decade. Side-effects of the therapy were very low with concomitant systemic infusion of the neutralizing agent sodium thiosulphate. The requisite dose of the chemotherapeutic agent which safely leads to apoptosis of oral cancer cells has not yet been assessed in vitro, nor has the combination of cisplatin and sodium thiosulphate been examined for the potential reduction of cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells. STUDY DESIGNIn a panel of two tongue squamous cancer cell lines and an oesophageal cancer cell line as control and comparison, cisplatin (0.2-10 microgram/ml) was combined with sodium thiosulphate (0-0.5 mg/ml). RESULTS10 microgram/ml of cisplatin proved to be 100% antiproliferative, while any additional concentration of sodium thiosulphate decreased this effect. At the maximum dose of cisplatin, a sodium thiosulphate/cisplatin concentration relation of less than 6:1 still effected cytotoxic activity of 〉80%. An increase of cisplatin concentration led to higher cytotoxicity irrespective of sodium thiosulphate concentration. The oesophageal cell line was more sensitive to cisplatin and to sodium thiosulphate than the tongue cell lines. CONCLUSIONSIn this study, it was found that high concentrations of cisplatin are necessary in oral cancer to reach cytotoxic levels which support high-dose intraarterial chemotherapy by which these levels might be reached. A sodium thiosulphate/cisplatin concentration ratio within the tumour of less than 6:1 may be allowed without compromising the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin.
    Keywords: Dentistry
    ISSN: 1010-5182
    E-ISSN: 1878-4119
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Current medicinal chemistry, August 2002, Vol.9(15), pp.1417-33
    Description: The branched-chain fatty acid valproic acid (VPA) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug for treating generalized epilepsy. Although originally considered to be of low toxicity, VPA has proved to possess considerable teratogenic potential when applied to the pregnant epileptic women. During the last few years, it has become evident that some of the mechanisms which account for the malformations produced by VPA are related to distinct anti-tumor properties of this compound. This intriguing discovery opens novel aspects for the treatment of tumor patients. In the present review, the biological, biochemical and pharmacological properties of VPA are discussed. Analyses of structure-activity relationships can provide the necessary insight into the molecular structures responsible for the anti-tumor effects.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Valproic Acid -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0929-8673
    E-ISSN: 1875533X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Oncology, January 2002, Vol.20(1), pp.97-106
    Description: Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to induce growth-arrest and differentiation of human neuroectodermal tumors similarly to several other fatty acids. In the present study, we show that continuous VPA treatment together with Interferon-α (INF-α) synergistically inhibited cell growth of a well-established model of neuroblastoma (NB) differentiation using the human N-myc amplified cell line BE(2)-C. Suppression of tumor growth was accompanied by morphological features of neuronal differentiation and inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. Furthermore, induction of differentiation was concomitant with altered expression of genes related to malignant phenotype such as down-regulation of N-myc, induction of bcl-2 and neural cell adhesion molecule. Production of inhibitors of angiogenesis like thrombospondin-1 and activin A was up-regulated in differentiated NB cells. Treatment with VPA alone decreased the ability of BE(2)-C cells to adhere to and penetrate human endothelium. All these effects of VPA were significantly enhanced when combined with INF-α which on its own had little or no effect. These results suggest that combination of VPA and INF-α may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for NB due to enhanced inhibition of tumor cell growth, induction of tumor differentiation and suppression of malignant biology by reduced angiogenic and decreased metastatic potentials.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Cell Differentiation -- Drug Effects ; Enzyme Inhibitors -- Therapeutic Use ; Interferon-Alpha -- Therapeutic Use ; Neuroblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Valproic Acid -- Therapeutic Use;
    ISSN: 1019-6439
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  • 4
    In: Anti-Cancer Drugs, 2002, Vol.13(2), pp.149-154
    Description: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an antitumoral active enzyme exhibiting specific antitumoral action against a number of different cancer cell lines. However, its systemic use is limited by its pharmacokinetic properties and antigenicity. Therefore, it was conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to overcome these problems. Measurement of aspermatogenic effects of the preparation after s.c. injection and injection into the scrotum was chosen as a model for the distribution of the enzyme in the body mediated by the linkage to PEG chains. Additionally, the antigenicity of BS-RNase coupled to PEG chains (BS-RNase–PEG) was compared to that of free BS-RNase, as antigenicity is known to be one of the main obstacles in the use of protein-based drugs. BS-RNase–PEG caused aspermatogenic effects after systemic administration to mice in very low concentrations at which free BS-RNase is not effective. Moreover, BS-RNase possessed a very low antigenicity as long as it was coupled to the PEG chains. In order to investigate the antitumoral efficacy of BS-RNase–PEG in vivo, preliminary experiments on the effect of the conjugate on neuroblastoma growth in mice were performed in a UKF-NB-3 xeno-transplantate model, demonstrating a drastically increased anti-tumoral activity of the conjugate compared to the free enzyme.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Chemistry ; Endoribonucleases -- Chemistry ; Neuroblastoma -- Drug Therapy;
    ISSN: 0959-4973
    E-ISSN: 14735741
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Arzneimittel-Forschung, 2002, Vol.52(5), pp.393-9
    Description: Twenty derivatives of aphidicolin were tested against HSV (herpes simplex virus), HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) and adenovirus in vitro. In addition, the antiviral activity of aphidicolin (CAS 38966-21-1) in combination with aciclovir (CAS 59277-89-3) or cidofovir (CAS 113852-37-2) against HSV was determined. The antiviral effects were evaluated using plaque reduction assay in Vero cells or human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) for HSV and HCMV, respectively. Combination indexes were calculated using the method of Chou and Talalay. Two derivatives (K14254 and K14266) that are considered to be prodrugs of aphidicolin were shown to inhibit HCMV and HSV replication comparably to aphidicolin. None of the tested substances inhibited adenovirus replication. Aphidicolin acted synergistically with aciclovir in a 1:1 molar ratio and with cidofovir in different ratios. Aphidicolin and its two antiviral active derivatives might represent useful additional tools for antiviral therapy of HSV and HCMV infections, especially in combination with clinically used drugs.
    Keywords: Organophosphonates ; Antiviral Agents -- Pharmacology ; Aphidicolin -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0004-4172
    E-ISSN: 16167066
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Pharmacology, 2002, Vol.64(2), pp.239-246
    Description: Continuous cultivation of T-lymphoid H9 cells in the presence of 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (AZT) resulted in a cell variant cross-resistant to both thymidine and deoxycytidine analogs. Cytotoxic effects of AZT, 2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxythymidine as well as different deoxycytidine analogs such as 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine, 2′,2′-difluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (dFdC) and 1-ß-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) were strongly reduced in H9 cells continuously exposed to AZT when compared to parental cells (〉8.3-, 〉6.6-, 〉9.1-, 5×10 4 -, 5×10 3 -fold, respectively). Moreover, anti-HIV-1 effects of AZT, d4T, ddC and 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC) were significantly diminished (〉222-, 〉25-, 〉400-, 〉200-fold, respectively) in AZT-resistant H9 cells. Study of cellular mechanisms responsible for cross-resistance to pyrimidine analogs in AZT-resistant H9 cells revealed decreased mRNA levels of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and lack of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) mRNA expression. The loss of dCK gene expression was confirmed by western blot analysis of dCK protein as well as dCK enzyme activity assay. Moreover, enzyme activity of TK1 and TK2 was reduced in AZT-resistant cells. In order to determine whether lack of dCK affected the formation of the active triphosphate of the deoxycytidine analog dFdC, dFdCTP accumulation and retention was measured in H9 parental and AZT-resistant cells after exposure to 1 and 10 μM dFdC. Parental H9 cells accumulated about 30 and 100 pmol dFdCTP/10 6 cells after 4 hr, whereas in AZT-resistant cells no dFdCTP accumulation was detected. These results demonstrate that continuous treatment of H9 cells in the presence of AZT selected for a thymidine analog resistant cell variant with cross-resistance to deoxycytidine analogs, due to deficiency in TK1, TK2, and dCK.
    Keywords: Cellular Resistance ; Zidovudine ; Gemcitabine ; Cytarabine ; Thymidine Kinase 1 ; Deoxycytidine Kinase ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-2952
    E-ISSN: 1873-2968
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cell Communication & Adhesion, 01 January 2002, Vol.9(3), pp.131-147
    Description: The precise function of cell adhesion molecules in the hematogenous phase of neuroblastoma metastasis is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) modulates neuroblastoma cell (NB) adhesion and transendothelial penetration in a...
    Keywords: Ncam ; Neuroblastoma ; Adhesion ; Biology
    ISSN: 1541-9061
    E-ISSN: 1543-5180
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