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  • 2002  (7)
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  • 2002  (7)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Microbes and Infection, 2002, Vol.4(11), pp.1141-1148
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid. Chancroid is common in developing countries and facilitates human immunodeficiency virus transmission. In this review, the clinical features, epidemiology, and prospects for disease control are discussed in the context of experimental and natural infection of humans.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Chancroid Prevention ; Epidemiology ; Clinical Feature ; Biology
    ISSN: 1286-4579
    E-ISSN: 1769-714X
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(4), p.1667
    Keywords: Animals–Etiology ; Chancroid–Immunology ; Disease Models, Animal–Pathology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi–Immunology ; Humans–Pathogenicity ; Interferon-Gamma–Biosynthesis ; Macrophages–Immunology ; Neutrophils–Immunology ; Proteins–Biosynthesis ; Rabbits–Biosynthesis ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha–Biosynthesis ; Virulence–Biosynthesis ; Proteins ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha ; Interferon-Induced 56k Protein, Human ; Interferon-Gamma;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, May 2002, Vol.159(5), pp.789-96
    Description: This study examined whether there were differences in the rate of depressive and anxiety disorders between HIV-infected women (N=93) and a comparison group of uninfected women (N=62). Secondary objectives were to examine correlates of depression in HIV-infected women-including HIV disease stage and protease inhibitor use-and the associations between symptoms of depression or anxiety and other potential predictor variables. Subjects underwent extensive semiannual clinical, psychiatric, neuropsychological, and immunological evaluations. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (the 17-item version and a modified 11-item version) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, respectively. The rate of current major depressive disorder was four times higher in HIV-seropositive women (19.4%) than in HIV-seronegative women (4.8%). Mean depressive symptom scores on the 17-item Hamilton depression scale also were significantly higher, overall, in the HIV-infected women (mean=8.7, SD=8.0) relative to comparison subjects (mean=3.3, SD=5.8). There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of anxiety disorders. However, HIV-seropositive women had significantly higher anxiety symptom scores (mean=8.8, SD=8.9) than did HIV-seronegative women (mean=3.6, SD=5.5). Both groups had similar substance abuse/dependence histories, but adjusting for this factor had little impact on the relationship of HIV status to current major depressive disorder. HIV-seropositive women without current substance abuse exhibited a significantly higher rate of major depressive disorder and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did a group of HIV-seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics. These controlled, clinical findings extend recent epidemiologic findings and underscore the importance of adequate assessment and treatment of depression and anxiety in HIV-infected women.
    Keywords: Anxiety Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder -- Epidemiology ; HIV Infections -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, October 2002, Vol.159(10), pp.1752-9
    Description: Clinical and epidemiology studies have implicated depression as a risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of many human diseases. This study sought to determine if depression was associated with alterations in cellular immunity variables-specifically, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 T lymphocytes-in women with HIV infection. Ninety-three women (63 HIV-seropositive, 30 HIV-seronegative) were studied as part of an ongoing longitudinal study conducted at two sites. Subjects underwent extensive clinical, psychiatric, and immunological evaluations. CBC counts and flow cytometry panels were conducted and NK cell activity assayed for all subjects; viral load was determined for HIV-seropositive subjects. The overall rate of major depression in the HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women was 15.87% (N=10 of 63) and 10.00% (N=3 of 30), respectively. HIV-seropositive women had higher depressive symptom scores than did the comparison subjects (Hamilton depression scale: mean=8.62 [SD=7.26] versus mean=5.67 [SD=7.33], respectively). Both groups had similar anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts and higher viral load levels. Major depression was associated with significantly lower natural killer cell activity, and depressive and anxiety symptom scores showed a similar correlation. Our findings provide the first evidence that depression may alter the function of killer lymphocytes in HIV-infected women and suggest that depression may decrease natural killer cell activity and lead to an increase in activated CD8 T lymphocytes and viral load. The rate of current major depression in these HIV-seropositive women (none of whom had current substance abuse) is approximately twice that reported for HIV-seropositive men. The rate is also consistent with studies of women with other medical illnesses and with a recent epidemiology study that associated depression with mortality in HIV-infected women with chronic depressive symptoms. Depression may have a negative impact on innate immunity. Examination of killer lymphocytes may prove useful in assessing the potential relationship between depression, immunity, and HIV disease progression in women.
    Keywords: Cd8-Positive T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology ; Depressive Disorder -- Immunology ; HIV Infections -- Immunology ; Killer Cells, Natural -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Public Health Reports, July 2002, Vol.117(4), pp.373-379
    Description: Objectives. This study was undertaken to examine the trends in the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents with new-onset diabetes seen from 1994 through 1998 at the three university-based diabetes centers in Florida. Methods. Data were abstracted from medical records and patients were categorized as having Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Results. There were 569 patients classified with Type 1 diabetes and 92 with Type 2 diabetes. The proportion of patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes increased over the five years from 9.4% in 1994 to 20.0% in 1998 (chi-square test for trend = 8.2; p=0.004). There was not an associated net increase in the total number of new diabetes patients referred over time (chi-square test for trend = 0.6, p=0.4). Those with Type 2 diabetes were more likely to have a body mass index in the 85th–94th percentile [odds ratio (OR) = 8.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 28.8], have a body mass index ≥95th percentile (OR = 6.8; 95% CI 2.6, 17.7), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 2.2, 17.9), black race (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.3, 6.2), female gender (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.2, 4.3), and older age (OR = 1.4 for each one-year increment in age; 95% CI 1.3, 1.6), compared with those having Type 1 diabetes. Conclusions. From 1994 through 1998, there was a significant overall increase in the percentage of children referred with new-onset diabetes who were considered to have Type 2 diabetes. Factors associated with the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes relative to Type 1 diabetes include body mass index ≥85th percentile, Hispanic ethnicity, black race, female gender, and older age.
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 0033-3549
    E-ISSN: 1468-2877
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Music Education Research, 01 September 2002, Vol.4(2), pp.275-287
    Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the focus of attention and reflective thinking in undergraduate music education students' retrospective reports of videotaped teaching episodes. Following observation of six short videotape excerpts of three experienced instrumental music teachers, subjects...
    Keywords: Music
    ISSN: 1461-3808
    E-ISSN: 1469-9893
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Women & Health, 14 June 2002, Vol.35(2-3), pp.23-40
    Description: Background: Limited data about victims of domestic violence in health care settings hinder development of appropriate services. A comprehensive program was established in a managed care organization to increase identification and referral of...
    Keywords: Domestic Violence ; Physical and Sexual Abuse ; Trauma ; Social Problems ; Health Care Utilization ; Managed Care ; Depression ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0363-0242
    E-ISSN: 1541-0331
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