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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Microbes and Infection, 2002, Vol.4(11), pp.1141-1148
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid. Chancroid is common in developing countries and facilitates human immunodeficiency virus transmission. In this review, the clinical features, epidemiology, and prospects for disease control are discussed in the context of experimental and natural infection of humans.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Chancroid Prevention ; Epidemiology ; Clinical Feature ; Biology
    ISSN: 1286-4579
    E-ISSN: 1769-714X
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(4), p.1667
    Keywords: Animals–Etiology ; Chancroid–Immunology ; Disease Models, Animal–Pathology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi–Immunology ; Humans–Pathogenicity ; Interferon-Gamma–Biosynthesis ; Macrophages–Immunology ; Neutrophils–Immunology ; Proteins–Biosynthesis ; Rabbits–Biosynthesis ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha–Biosynthesis ; Virulence–Biosynthesis ; Proteins ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha ; Interferon-Induced 56k Protein, Human ; Interferon-Gamma;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(3), p.1367
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi produces a periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), which is thought to protect the organism from exogenous reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils during an inflammatory response. We had previously identified the gene, sodC, responsible for the production and secretion of Cu-Zn SOD and constructed an isogenic H. ducreyi strain with a mutation in the sodC gene (35000HP-sodC-cat). Compared to the parent, the mutant does not survive in the presence of exogenous superoxide (L. R. San Mateo, M. Hobbs, and T. H. Kawula, Mol. Microbiol. 27:391-404, 1998) and is impaired in the swine model of H. ducreyi infection (L. R. San Mateo, K. L. Toffer, P. E. Orndorff, and T. H. Kawula, Infect. Immun. 67:5345-5351, 1999). To test whether Cu-Zn SOD is important for bacterial survival in vivo, six human volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000HP and 35000HP- sodC-cat and observed for papule and pustule formation. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent. The pustule formation rates were 75% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 43 to 95%) at 12 parent-inoculated sites and 67% (95% CI, 41 to 88%) at 18 mutant-inoculated sites (P = 0.47). There was no significant difference in levels of H. ducreyi recovery from mutant- and parent-inoculated biopsy sites. These results suggest that expression of Cu-Zn SOD does not play a major role in the survival of this pathogen in the initial stages of experimental infection of humans.
    Keywords: Mutants ; Virulence ; Inflammation ; Leukocytes (Neutrophilic) ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Superoxide Dismutase ; Mutants ; Virulence ; Inflammation ; Leukocytes (Neutrophilic) ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; Superoxide Dismutase ; Bacterial Genetics ; Human Bacteriology: Others ; Papules ; Pustules ; Man ; Papules ; Pustules ; Man ; Man ; Papules ; Pustules;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 01 December 2002, Vol.169(11), pp.6316-23
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which facilitates HIV-1 transmission. Skin biopsies were obtained from subjects experimentally infected with H. ducreyi to study the evolution of the immune response and immunophenotypes relevant to transmission of HIV-1. Compared with peripheral blood, there was an enrichment of T cells and macrophages after 48 h of infection in the skin. Neutrophils became the predominant cell type by 7-9 days. By immunohistochemistry, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha was not present early in infection, but was abundant at later stages. RANTES was present throughout the papular and pustular stages of experimental infection, but not present in uninfected control skin. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 was present at low levels in all samples examined. Macrophages in lesions had significantly increased expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 compared with peripheral blood cells, and CD4 T cells had significant up-regulation of CCR5. The magnitude of increased expression of these receptors was not replicated when PBMCs were incubated with H. ducreyi or H. ducreyi lipooligosaccharide in vitro. Together with the disruption of mucosal and skin barriers, the presence of cells with up-regulated HIV-1 coreceptors in H. ducreyi-infected lesions may provide an environment that facilitates the acquisition of R5 (CCR5), X4 (CXCR4), and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains.
    Keywords: Chancroid -- Complications ; HIV Infections -- Complications ; Skin -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0022-1767
    E-ISSN: 15506606
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2002, Vol.29(2), pp.114-118
    Description: BACKGROUND : Naturally occurring chancroid is usually more prevalent in men than in women. GOAL : To examine whether there were gender differences in susceptibility to Haemophilus ducreyi infection by analyzing the papule and pustule formation rates for men and women who were experimentally inoculated with Haemophilus ducreyi. STUDY DESIGN : Ninety volunteers were included in the analysis. A total of 189 sites were available for estimation of the papule formation rate, and 166 sites for estimation of the pustule formation rates using logistic regression modeling. RESULTS : Although there were no gender differences in papule formation rates, the women had significantly lower rates of pustule formation than the men after adjustment for the estimated delivered dose. CONCLUSIONS : In women the disease will resolve and not progress to the pustular stage of disease as often as in men. The high male-to-female ratio in naturally occurring chancroid may in part reflect biological differences in gender susceptibility to disease progression, although the mechanisms responsible for this difference are unclear.
    Keywords: Chancroid ; Demographic Aspects ; Sex Factors in Disease ; Research ; Disease Susceptibility ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 6
    In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 2002, Vol.15(1), pp.43-47
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which facilitates the transmission of HIV infection. This review focuses on recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis of this disease.
    Keywords: Chancroid -- Physiopathology;
    ISSN: 0951-7375
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