Environmental science & technology, 15 May 2003, Vol.37(10), pp.2139-44
Our knowledge about the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in retaining agricultural nonpoint-source pesticide pollution is limited. A 0.44-ha vegetated wetland built along a tributary of the Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, was studied to ascertain the retention, fate, and effects of spray drift-borne azinphos-methyl (AZP). Composite water samples taken at the inlet and outlet during five spray drift trials in summer 2000 and 2001 revealed an overall reduction of AZP levels by 90 +/- 1% and a retention of AZP mass by 61 +/- 5%. Samples were collected at the inlet outlet, and four platforms within the wetland to determine the fate and effect of AZP in the wetland after direct spray drift deposition in the tributary 200 m upstream of the inlet. Peak concentrations of AZP decreased, and the duration of exposure increased from inlet (0.73 microg/L; 9 h) via platforms 1 and 4 to outlet (0.08 microg/L; 16 h). AZP sorbed to plants or plant surfaces, leading to a peak concentration of 6.8 microg/kg dw. The living plant biomass accounted for 10.5% of the AZP mass initially retained in the wetland, indicating processes such as volatilization, photolysis, hydrolysis, or metabolic degradation as being very important AZP was not detected in sediments. Water samples taken along two 10-m transects situated perpendicular to the shore indicated a homogeneous horizontal distribution of the pesticide: 0.23 +/- 0.02 and 0.14 +/- 0.04 microg/L (n = 5), respectively. Both Copepoda (p = 0.019) and Cladocere (p = 0.027) decreased significantly 6 h postdeposition and remained at reduced densities for at least 7 d. In parallel, the chlorophyll a concentration showed an increase, although not significant, within 6 h of spray deposition. The study highlights the potential of constructed wetlands as a risk-mitigation strategy for spray drift-related pesticide pollution.
Azinphosmethyl -- Analysis ; Crustacea -- Metabolism ; Pesticide Residues -- Analysis ; Plants -- Metabolism ; Waste Disposal, Fluid -- Methods ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
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